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ALBERT RO MAIN LIBRARY AT OORNELL UNIVERSITY

Cornell University Library

Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comp

Cornell University

The original of this book is in the Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright restrictions in the United States on the use of the text.

http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924000537757

CYCLOPEDIA OF AMERICAN HORTICULTURE

The

‘xO SNUAA PIUCTOPENUd ‘USIPEA “IXXX eld

CYCLOPEDIA OF AMERICAN HORTICULTURE

COMPRISING SUGGESTIONS FOR CULTIVATION OF HORTI- CULTURAL PLANTS, DESCRIPTIONS OF THE SPECIES OF FRUITS, VEGETABLES, FLOWERS AND ORNAMENTAL PLANTS SOLD IN THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA, TOGETHER WITH GEOGRAPHICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES

BY

L. H. BAILEY

Professor of Horticulture in Cornell University

ASSISTED BY

WILHELM MILLER, Pu.D.

Associate Editor

AND MANY EXPERT CULTIVATORS AND BOTANISTS

Sllustrated with ober Cwo Chousand Driginal Engravings

IN FOouR VOLUMES R-Z

Iew Bork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY

LONDON: MACMILLAN & CO., Lr. 1902

The rights of reproduction and of translation are strietly reserved

CopyRiGHT, 1902 By THE MACMILLAN COMPANY

Mount Wleasant Press J. HorAcE McFaruanp ComePany HARRISBURG « PENNSYLVANIA

OW THAT THE CYCLOPEDIA OF AMERICAN HORTICULTURE is completed, it is due the reader that some information be given him of the methods by which it has been made and of the resources that have been at command. It is due to the Editor that he be allowed to state his own point of view in respect to the meaning of the work. These remarks are made in no feeling of personal pride, for the writer is keenly aware of the many shortcomings of the book; but they may acquaint the reader with some of the difficulties with which such work

is attended, and they may be suggestive to those who may desire to prosecute similar

studies.

RETROSPECT I. THE PROJECT

The most difficult part of the making of a cyclopedia is to project it. Its scope and point of view must be determined before a stroke of actual work is done. This much done, the remainder is labor rather than diffieulty. The lay-out of the enter- prise cannot be made in a day. It is a matter of slow growth. One must have a mental picture of the entire field and must calculate the resources. The plan once perfected, it remains only to work out detail after detail, taking up the tasks as they come, not caring nor even daring to look forward to the work that piles mountain high farther down the alphabet.

So far as the Cyclopedia of American Horticulture is concerned, the Editor had resolved and reviewed the enterprise for more than ten years. The first suggestion was a vague idea that a comprehensive work was needed. There were several hundred special works on American horticulture. Some subjects were well worked; others were untouched. There was no means of determining the extent of our wealth in eultivated plants. There were no suggestions, even, as to what that wealth might be. No survey had been made. Only a full inventory can tell us whether we are rich or poor; it gives us a scale by which to measure progress.

The first tangible result of this desire for some comprehensive view of American horticulture was the publication of “Annals of Horticulture for 1889.” Some years before this time an endeavor had been made to interest a publisher in the project, but without success. This annual volume was designed to be “a witness of passing events and a record of progress.” Five years these annual volumes were issued, the last one containing a summary sketch of horticulture at the World’s Fair, at which was made the greatest sinele effort to display our hortieultural achievements and possibilities. In these annual volumes all the new plants and tools and movements of the year were intended to be recorded. Special investigations were made for some of the volumes. The issue for 1889 contained a list of all the kitchen-garden vegetables sold in North America in that year; that for 1891 contained a census of all the native plants which had been introduced into cultivation, showing that 2,416 species had become known to the horticulturist in Europe or America, although

(v)

vi RETROSPECT

many of these probably were not then in cultivation; that for 1892 made an annotated inventory of the varieties of apples that had been and were in cultivation in North America, showing that 878 varieties were actually offered for sale by American nur- serymen in that year. But these volumes were isolated; they picked up the work piece by piece, An inventory of the whole field, critically and laboriously made, was needed before mere annals of yearly progress could signify much. We needed to know our status; thereafter chronicles would have a meaning.

From 1893, attention was given to the larger and comprehensive effort. A gar- den herbarium had to be made, for there was none in the country. The first plant had been put into this herbarium in 1889; it was a mere sprig of the greenhouse shrub Boronia megastigma. There are difficulties in making a garden herbarium : there are no professional collectors and one cannot buy specimens ; many cultivated plants are too valuable to allow of specimens to be made. This herbarium now has more than 12,000 mounted specimens. Although small, nevertheless it has been in- valuable. If it does not show nearly all the species, it shows the range of variation in some, and thereby suggests what may take place in all. It also shows what is actually cultivated under a given name, whether that name be correct or not.

Trial excursions were made into the evolution of various perplexed garden plants. Some of these essays have been published. Out of these efforts grew the volume, “Sketch of the Evolution of Our Native Fruits.” The study of garden plants is a different subject from the study of wild plants. Mere descriptions are often of little value. The plant may have been bred away from the description within a decade. Specific descriptions of many of the common garden plants do not exist in books: the plants are not species in the book sense.

American horticultural books must be collected, for the comprehensive work, if it came, must contain American advice. One must know the range of New World ex- perience and the occidental point of view. It has been the misfortune of many Ameri- can writings that they have drawn too heavily from the experience of the Old World. Once this was necessary, but now it is tine to break away. Fifty authors have written on viticulture in America, yet scarcely one has caught the spirit of the American grape- growing. Nearly twenty years of collecting by the Editor has brought together the completest library of American horticultural books.

The details entering into any comprehensive cyclopedia of horticulture are astonish- ing in number and variety. Consider some of the items: More than 10,000 species of plants in cultivation; almost every important species phenomenally variable, sometimes running into thousands of forms; every species requiring its own soil and treatment, and sometimes even minor varieties differing in these requirements; limitless differences in soils and climates in our great domain, every difference modifying the plants or their requirements; a different ideal in plant-growing and plant-breeding in the mind of every good plant-grower; as many different kinds of experience as there are men; many of these men not facile with the pen, although full of wholesome facet and experience; the species described in books which deal with the four corners of the earth; very few botanists who have given much attention to the domestic flora.

It was desired that the Cyclopedia be new—brand-new from start to finish. The illustrations were to be newly made; the cultural suggestions written directly for the oceasion from American experience, and often presented from more than one point of view; few of the precedents of former cyclopedias to be followed ; all matters to be worked up by experts and from sources as nearly as possible original. Of course it

RETROSPECT vil

has been impossible to reach the ideals. There are limitations of expense and time as well as of capability : for it is yet a question whether our new country is ready for such a laborious work.

In America there has been but one eyclopedic work on horticulture, Hendersou’s “Handbook of Plants,” 1881; second edition, 1890. This is in one volume. The most complete similar recent work in the English language is Nicholson’s “Illustrated Dic- tionary of Gardening,” four volumes, 1884-87. It is the work of the talented ex-Curator of the Royal Botanie Gardens at Kew, England. Mottet’s French edition of Nicholson, five volumes, 1892-99, is the largest modern eyclopedia of horticulture, and the only one which excels in size the present American venture. Another popular English work in one volume is Wright & Dewavr’s revision of “Johnson’s Gardener’s Dictionary,” 1894. Another recent French work, also in one volume, is Bois’ Dictionnaire d’ Horticulture,” 1893-99, with colored pictures printed in the text. In German is Riimpler’s "Illus- triertes Gartenbau- Lexikon,” in one volume, with a recent new edition; also Siebert & Voss’ “Vilmorin’s Blumengiirtnere,” one volume of text and one of plates, 1896, the most eritical of all similar works. In judging the American work, the reader must bear in mind that there is really no eritieal horticultural-botanical writing in this coun- try back of the present decade. The present Cyclopedia reflects the imperfection of our literature as well as the shortcomings of the Editor.

Il. THE OFFICE DETAILS

Before the actual writing was begun, other cyclopedias were searched for sugges- tions of subjects to be inserted. Also, a ecard index was made to portraits of plants in the leading horticultural and botanical serials, to descriptions of plants in current publi- cations, to monographs, and to the names of leading horticultural varieties in some of the larger groups. This card index grew during the progress of the work, and it now comprises about 35,000 ecards.

The ‘trade lists” were also made. These lists were intended to afford a record of the plants actually in cultivation in North America north of Mexico. Catalogues of more than one hundred leading seedsmen, florists, and nurserymen were cut up, and all the information respecting the various genera pasted on yellow sheets of standard letter- paper size. Thus, on one sheet, or one set of sheets, would be all the entries on Abies, Bocconia, Saxifraga, and the like. On these ‘trade lists” were made notes respecting persons who are skilled in the culture of the particular plants, together with extracts from letters, items of experience, and other incidental information. The name of the eatalogue from which the cuttings were made was preserved, in order that doubtful questions might be traced. In special groups, it has been impossible to determine just what species are in cultivation because they are not all recorded in printed eata- logues and they are known chiefly to a few fanciers or collectors. This limitation is particularly apparent in orchids; also in such large special genera as Acacia and Eu- ealyptus. In such eases it is practically impossible to make complete lists, and it is probably scarcely worth while to make the effort; but all the species that are generally known are almost sure to have been recorded. Since the Cyclopedia is designed as a permanent work of reference, mere horticultural varieties have been omitted, as a rule; but an effort has been made to indieate the dominant types or races, the evolution of garden favorites, the good and bad “points” of important variations, and to sug- gest possible lines of progress.

vill RETROSPECT

These trade lists were “standardized” in order to determine the proper nomenclature for the various entries; for Virgilia had to be brought forward to Cladrastis and Amian- thium placed with Zygadenus. This preliminary work had to be done with care. It necessitated, also, the adoption of some one work as a standard; and the only work which covered the field and answered other requirements is Index Kewensis. This work has been followed in the main, although every contributor has been free to express his own ideas of genera and species, and the recent monographs have been followed for special groups.

The work for a whole letter—as the letter A—was laid out in advance. The gen- eral theory was to assign every article to an authoritative writer. Articles that could not be assigned, or for which no person would hold himself responsible, fell to the editors. It therefore happened that many of the most critical puzzles fell to the office. On very important subjects, two to six persons were asked to contribute. If these persons wrote from experience, no effort was made to cause their statements to be uniform, although it was desired that they should harmonize whenever possible. It was desired that the work have personality, for this is vitality. In horticultural matters there is no final opinion.

The articles have been written by busy men. Serious delays have resulted in securing the manuseripts; and yet the Editor must express his gratification with the general promptness of the contributors. With scarcely an exception, the collaborators have seemed to feel a personal responsibility in the success of the undertaking. The manuscripts have been much edited, yet they have not been copied. Not a single par- cel is known to have been lost in the express or mails. The Cyclopedia has had a patient printer. On all kinds and sizes of paper, and in every style of script, with cabalistic editorial marks in pencil and in inks of various colors, these manuscripts have gone to the compositor. Returning from the printer, they have been sorted and filed, and finally tied in bundles, in which condition they now constitute a part of the archives of the Cyclopedia.

Usually the printer received copy for one letter at a time. In large letters, as C, P, 8, one section—as Ca, Po, St—comprised one sending, for it has been impossible to keep far ahead of the compositors. When all the manuscript was received from the various writers, eyclopedie works were consulted to see that no entries were omitted. The titles of all entries were copied when the manuscripts went to the printer, and the entries were checked off when they appeared in galleys and pages. Failure to check up entries in the letter A resulted in the loss of the article Aubrietia,” and the plate had to be recast in order to insert it.

The type-matter was first seen in “galleys” on green paper, with the cuts separate, known in the office as “the long green.” Six proofs were received by the Editor, who sent four or five of them to specialists on the various subjects. Every line in the work has been read in the proof by experts. It requires from a week to ten days to get back the proofs from the various readers. The matter is then made up into pages, and read again. It is then cast, and the final proofs are placed on file. The galley proofs are gone over several times by the Editor, aside from the regular reading, each time for a specific purpose: once for alphabetic order of the entries; once for spelling of names; once for aceent marks; ounce for signatures to the articles: once for references to the euts; onee for legends to the cuts; onee for general style. A full page of the Cyelopedia contains 14,000 pieces of metal. The reader will be lenient when he finds a misplaced letter. A clerk was employed to verify all references by hunting up the references themselves.

RETROSPECT 1X

In the “make-up” it is an inviolable rule that wherever the book opens, an en- graving will be seen. Adherence to this rule has made trouble in some cases. In one lustance if was neeessary to have a new cut made after the forms were made up, and to renumber the legends of more than one hundred pictures. The mechanical make-up was in the hands of I. B. Kraybill, foreman of the composing-room of the Mt. Pleasant Press, who gave the work loving and thoughtful care until, in the letter T, he was ealled to lay down his labors. The Editor hopes that the reader will regard his memory whenever the arrangement of the pictures is a source of satisfaction and pleasure.

The Cyclopedia has been edited in a room eighteen feet square, kindly allowed for this use by Cornell University. In this room were two long tables, which allowed of the disposition of imanuscripts and pictures in delightful abandon; the garden herbarinin of Cornell University; and a large collection of books, mostly loaned from the Library of Cornell University. Aside from monographs, botanical manuals, local floras, horticultural handbooks, dictionaries, the following works were on the shelves: Index Kewensis (intended to contain all species of flowering plants down to 1885—about 125,000 names); Bentham and Hooker’s Genera Plantarum ; Engler and Prantl’s Natitirlichen Pflanzenfamilien ; DeCandolle’s Prodromus (17 vol- umes), and his Monographie Phanerogamarum (9 volumes thus far); the Kew List of new species introduced into cultivation between 1876 and 1896. Next in import- ance were the periodicals, containing perhaps 50,000 pictures of plants, many of them colored and mostly authentic. First rank must be accorded the peeriess Curtis’ Bo- tanical Magazine, with its 125 volumes, containing over 7,600 colored plates. Edwards’ Botanical Register, Loddiges’ Botanical Cabinet, L’Hlustration Horticole, Flore des Serres, Paxton’s Magazine, Revue Horticole and The Garden are extensive works provided with colored plates, for details of which the reader may consult Vol. I, pp. xvii and xviii. Less extended periodicals containing colored plates have been used, as The Botanist by Maund, The Florist and Pomologist, Knowles & Westeott’s Floral Cabinet, Meehan’s Monthly and an incomplete set of Gartenflora and Revue d’Hortieulture Belge. Of horticultural periodicals not containing colored plates, the Gardeners’ Chronicle is a great store of botanical knowledge, being published since 1841. It is full of botanical monographs of garden genera, and is a rich repository of description of new species. <A complete set of the Journal of Horticulture has been available and all the pictures in its third series have been indexed. Of American periodicals, Garden and Forest, American Gardening, American Florist, Florists’ Exchange, Florists’ Review and Gardening have been very helpful.

The three most useful bibliographical works on botany have been Pritzel’s Thesau- rus, Jackson’s Guide to the Literature of Botany, and the Catalogue of the Kew Library. About two dozen eyclopedic works were thoroughly examined and kept at hand for various periods, as those of Nicholson, Mottet, Siebert and Voss; the Bois’ Diction- naire d’Horticulture, Johnson’s Gardener’s Dictionary, Paxton’s Botanieal Dictionary, Riimpler’s Tllustriertes Gartenbau - Lexikon, London’s Encyclopedia of Gardening, Lindley and Moore’s Treasury of Botany and various editions of the prototype of all such undertakings,— Philip Miller’s Gardener’s Dictionary. The floras of foreien countries have been as indispensable as those of America. Flora Capensis (4 vols. thus far), Flora Australiensis (7 vols.) and the Flora of British India (7 vols.), have been used the most. On European plants, Koch’s Synopsis Flor Germanice et Helvetica, Grenier & Gordon’s Flore de France, Ledebour’s Flora Rossiea, and Bentham’s Illustrated Handbook of the British Flora, and others, have been constantly at hand.

x RETROSPECT

On Asiatic plants the following have been studied: Boissier’s Flora Orientalis, Post’s Flora of Syria, Palestine and Sinai, Siebold and Zucearini’s Flora Japonica, Franchet & Savatier’s Enumeratio Plantarum Japonicarum, Maximowicz’s Diagnoses Plantarum Asiaticarum and Diagnoses Plantarum Japonice, Bentham’s Flora Hong- kongensis, Forbes & Hemsley’s Flora of China in vol. 23 of the Journal of the Linnean Soc., Blanco’s sumptuous Flora de Filipinas, Baker’s Flora of Mauritius and the Sey- chelles, and Hooker’s Flora of British India.

The office force consisted of the Editor and Associate Editor, the latter giving all his time to the work for four years. For a time, Alfred Rehder was employed at the Ar- nold Arboretum, near Boston, to work on the hardy trees and shrubs. For two months F. W. Barelay, a former student at the Massachusetts Aericultural College and now gardener for C. A. Griscom, Haverford, Pennsylvania, joined the office at Ithaca, giving most of his attention to herbaceous plants. Heinrich Hasselbring, graduate of Cornell University and trained as a florist, joined the office force for a time, devoting his attention mostly to orchids. No other writers have been employed otherwise than as contributors. The Associate Editor has had particular charge of indexes, trade lists, bibliographical matters, and editing of manuscripts. Aside from constructive and ad- ministrative matters, the Editor has had special charge of illustrations, proof-reading, arrangements with contributors and the make-up of the galleys into pages. He has read every line of the work, much of it several times over. The Editor desires to express his appreciation of the aid which the Associate Editor, Wilhelm Miller, has rendered to him and to the Cyelopedia. With unbounded zeal, persistent industry and painstaking thoroughness, he has given his best effort to the work from start to finish.

The pictures have been made by a score and more of artists. With the exception of the fifty half-tone full-page plates, they are all line drawings. The greater part of these drawings have been made from the living plants or other objects. Many have been drawn from photographs, of which a large collection was made. Some have been composed from combined suggestions of authoritative prints. botanical specimens, and other information. Some of the pictures are from the American Garden, having been made for that journal in the years 1890 to 1898, under the supervision of the present Editor. These engravings passed into the hands of the J. Horace McFarland Company, and by this company have been used for the present publishers. A number of the cuts have been borrowed from the Cornell University Experiment Station. Some of the illustrations are those used in the books in which the Editor is interested and which are published by The Macmillan Company. The pictures are intended to represent the average excellence of the plants, and, therefore, they are not idealized. The artists who have made the largest number of illustrations directly for the Cyclopedia are: Charles W. Furlong and W. C. Baker, Instructors in Drawing in Cornell University; E. N. Fischer and C. H. L. Gebfert, Jamaica Plain, Mass., who had access to the Arnold Arboretum; Miss H. A. Wood, Kineston, Jamaica, West Indies, who has drawn tropical economic plants; G. R. Chamberlain, who has drawn many plants, particularly annuals, in the gardens of Cornell University; Miss R. M. Huntington, who had access to the gardens at Smith College, Northampton, Mass.; Mrs. K. C. Davis and Miss Marie L. Robertson (now Mrs. B. M. Dugegar), then at Ithaca, N.Y. The artistic work has been aided at almost every point by the personal interest of J. Horace McFarland, proprietor of the Mt. Pleasant Press, Harrisburg, Pa., where the type-setting and presswork have been done. Himself an expert photographer,

RETROSPECT xi Mr. MeFarland has given freely of photographs and advice; and he has also overseen the mechanical construction of the Cyclopedia with rare devotion and skill.

Il, HOW A GENUS IS WRITTEN UP

The method of writing up a genus differs with the various writers. The Editor can speak only for himself, but the frequency with which persons ask for a specific method of procedure suggests that a brief narrative may be useful to students.

The first question that arises when a new genus is to be written up is the num- ber of species to be aceounted for. The “trade lst” and the eard index are con- sulted, and a list is made of all the species that are to be included in the account. The writer first standardizes the names with Index Kewensis as a working. basis, and then consults some aualytic account of the genus itself, as Bentham and Hooker’s Genera Plantarum, and Engler and Prantl’s Natiirlichen Pflanzenfamilien. Herbarium specimens are examined. A characterization is made of the genus. All available works are consulted for suggestions as to its horticultural and economic importance.

Then follows the really important part of the undertaking—the accounting for all the species. All monographs of the genus are consulted; herbarium specimens ave studied in detail; horticultural eyclopedias and handbooks are searched for descrip- tive notes of the species. Every effort is made to understand the speeies as a whole before any one species is actually described, for in this eyclopedia the species are com- pared and contrasted, not arranged alphabetically. A key to all the species must be outlined before the work of description can be undertaken. This means that every species must be studied and properly classified. This making of the key or elassifi- cation comprises more than half the average work of writing up the various genera. Cultivated plants come from many parts of the world. In many eases no single account of the genus contains all the species. One or two species from outlying regions may not fit into any scheme of classification made in the books. The descriptions of them may be inadequate. Often a whole day will be spent in the endeavor to find characters that will allow these outlying species to be ineluded in a common key. Moreover, botanical keys are often too minute and technical to be used in a horticultural work. The key-scheme once made, the description of the species is drawn from every available source;—from specimens and personal experience when possible; from authoritative monographs; from horticultural journals and treatises; from notes sent by correspond- ents; from the information contained in trade catalogues. On doubtful points corre- spondence is opened with persons who know the plants, particularly with those who advertise the given kinds. The fulness of the descriptions will depend on how difficult the plants are to distinguish anc how important the group is to the cultivator. It has been the custom with the Editor to work mostly with bare outlines at first, afterwards filling in the matters of secondary and incidental importance from subsequent reading and investigation. It has been the custom of the Associate Editor to devour and digest all the incidentals, as well as the fundamentals, before beginning the writing.

In the editing of manuscripts, the first effort is to determine whether the author has accounted for all the names in the trade. Too often the troublesome names have been omitted, although he worked from lists sent from the Cyclopedia office. These omitted names must be inserted, often necessitating the entire reconstruction of the classificatory scheme. The second attention is given to the scheme itself, to see that it

Xu PROSPECT

is properly codrdinated or balanced; for a scheme is of no value unless the coordinate parts are contrasts of similar characters. Yet the failure to coordinate the keys was common, particularly in the earlier part of the work. For example, there is no service in the key that runs

A. Lys. long-lanceolate, entire

AA. Fls. blue, in long racemes

and yet it has been constantly necessary to eliminate examples of this type. The third effort in the editing of manuscripts is the revision of nomenclature, for uniformity i this matter is of the utmost editorial importance. The fourth effort is to look up and insert all references to portraits of the plants. Beyond these efforts, the editing of the manuseripts had to do chiefly with matters of literary form.

To the looker-on, the actual writing of the articles may appear to be the larger part of the work. Asa matter of fact, however, it has required more labor to secure articles from correspondents than it would have required to have written them ourselves. This is not because correspondents have been negligent, but because of the inherent difficulties of doing work at long range. The value of the material, however, is vastly improved and broadened because of the number of persons who have been engaged in preparing it. It is probable that two-thirds of the labor in preparing the Cyclo- pedia has been of a character that is not directly productive of written articles,—as correspondence, keeping of accounts, filing of material, securing illustrations, proof- reading.

PROSPECT

The Editor hopes that this Cyclopedia will never be revised. If new issues are called for, mere errors should be corrected; but beyond this, the plates should be left as they are, for it is the purpose of the book to make a record of North American horti- culture as it exists at the opening of the twentieth century. It is hoped that subsequent progress may be recorded in annual supplemental volumes. It is planned to issue each year a supplement of say 75 to 100 pages, in the same size of page as the present book, with cumulative index, in paper covers; every five years these supplements may be com- pleted into a volume. They should record the introductions of new plants and methods, contain revisions of important genera, encourage historical studies, and make reviews of the tendencies of plant culture in North America. The manuscript for the first two proposed supplements is already prepared. The first is a complete key to all the fami- lies and genera in the Cyclopedia, designed to enable the student to run down any species that he may have in hand. It was hoped that this key could be printed as a supplement to Volume IV, but the size of the volume forbids it. The second mann- seript is a bibhography of the North American book writings on horticulture. These supplements are not definitely promised, but they will be made if there is sufficient demand for them.

It may not be out of place for the Editor to indicate what he conceives to be the most important features of the general plan of the Cyclopedia.

(1) The book represents a living horticulture. It has attempted to aecount for the species that are actually in cultivation in the country, rather than those that chance to have been described or pictured in other cyelopedias or in periodical publications. The best way of determining what plants are actually iu cultivation is to make a list of

PROSPECT X1ll

those that are offered for sale within a space of ten or fifteen years, supplemented with lists submitted by actual cultivators. It is not the fact that these plants are bought and sold that is important, but the fact that they are in cultivation at the present time in this country. These lists give us a census of our horticultural resources. A species- name which oecurs in trade lists must be rnn down and inserted. Not knowingly has any been omitted.

(2) The species ave compared and contrasted, as well as described. In all genera containiug several species, keys or classificatory schemes have been devised. This makes it incumbent upon the writer that he understand each species, not merely copy a deseription of it. It enables the reader to name the species he has in hand. It is an analytic rather than a compilatory method. The reader will be surprised to know how much labor the mere introduction of keys has added to the making of the book. It has certainly more than doubled the labor. The Editor believes that he could make the entire Cyclopedia in two years’ time if all the species were to be arranged alphabetically under the genus and without introductory keys.

(3) The leading articles are signed with the name of the writer. Thereby is responsibility fixed and due eredit given. The chief value of the signed article, how- ever, 1s the faet that it gives personality to the writings and presents a wide range of experience and achievement. It is singularly gratifying that horticulturists and botan- ists have responded with the greatest good will to the repeated calls for help. Their inspiration has saved the book. The botany of large and difficult groups has been placed bodily in the hands of specialists. The number of contributors is large and has grown with each volume. More than 450 persons have aided in the making of the Cyclopedia. The great number of signed articles gives the work a somewhat hetero- geneous character, and this may be considered by some persons to be a disadvantage; but the Editor has not aecepted the current idea that a eyelopedia must necessarily be uniform and consistent in its treatment of various and unlike subjects.

(4) The book is primarily a cyelopedia of horticulture, rather than of gardening. It has endeavored to catch the large-area and commercial spirit of North American plant culture, while still holding to the many and varied amateur interests. Not all the entries are names of plants.

(5) It has attempted to represent plants as hving and growing things that are still undergoing evolution. It has tried to indicate the range and extent of variation, rather than to treat plant-names as representing entities in nature. Whenever possible it has been the purpose to suggest the general lines of evolution in the important groups. This has introduced the historical method of treatment. Of course only the merest touch can be had with these subjects, because knowledge of them is yet to come; but it is hoped that the sympathetic reader will feel the drift of an evolutionary motive.

Other points of view that seem to the Editor to be important are: The effort to present a new set of horticultural pictures; to give biographies of persons who have had an important influence on the trend of American horticulture; to present geo- graphical and historical subjects; to give special attention to tropical and subtropical economic plants; to cite freely references to literature.

It must be admitted that the foregoing categories are ideals. At all points, it is feared, the accomplishment has fallen far short of the purpose. The Editor would like to do the work all over again, so many are the improvements that might be made. One must make a book in order to learn how to make it. The work has grown as it

xiv PROSPECT

has progressed. At first it was intended to make a three-volume cyclopedia, but before the first volume was half written it was found that a fourth volume must be added in order to present the subject adequately. The observant reader will discover that the letter A is treated on the three-volume basis. The article “Apple” is wholly inade- quate, but partial penance is done under “Pomology.” The article “Asparagus” is the first that began to feel the fuller and larger treatment. Whatever usefulness the Cyclopedia may have has been rendered possible by the liberal policy of the publishers with whom it has been a joy and an inspiration to work.

The actual writing on the Cyelopedia was begun in January, 1899. A year had then been spent in making indexes and collecting data. The proof of the letter Z was received December 31, 1901. On the 8th of January, 1902, the Cyclopedia office was vacated. It was asad parting. The pleasantest associations of a pleasant life had come to a finish. We knew that it was a turning-point. Hundreds of books had be- come familiar friends. We would never see them all together again. Like a child, the Cyclopedia had grown. Like the mature youth, it had left us. It was no longer ours.

L. H. BAILEY. Irnaca, New York, January 11, 1902

STATISTICS

I. THE NUMBER OF ARTICLES.

Total number of entries or articles, including cross-references:

WiOMU TASS vx s tint ern cae weston ohm cea ae apa

Il. THe NUMBER OF PLANTs.

The number of genera described:

Wolumie= Ti tace otha acati tunnel aati as acne Volume: To. vee: NeGhatmer Ty east. sate otecace 5 Volume IV...

Total number of species fully described (in black-faced type):

Volume Volume Volume Volume

Total

grades:

number of varieties (of species) of all Volume Volume Volume Volume

Total number of synonyms (in Italie type):

OHM CA Dy boar ci tint Gor banca bc ea es cpeteeate dda koe Ns 2446 Moluim Gr lilise:: eee ha ca a iaes ret Sane ieee thy 2104 Volume: iL, atcatat aomascenees eevnre sates 3a: ane ae 1243 NoluMee TVs fo antek Ca act a eae ahaa eatenge Gen 1689

7482

Total number of species in supplementary lists (in Italic type):

Volume Volume Volume Volume $524 Total number of Latin binomial and trinomial plant names accounted for (approximate)........ Pdtt Ill. THE NUMBER OF SPEVIES (IN BLACK -FACED TYPE) NATIVE TO NORTH AMERICA NORTH or MEXICO: Volum Gole.c sso etek seca See (668 Volume II... 631 Volume III.. Neer cea, 416 Woo Cres AS Behe Oe ee a Nee Bea TUL 2419 IV. THE Dates OF PUBLICATION: Wilma: Ws sac cons. ai acd ates eee eas February 14, 1900 Volume Usa nes snag tes in aaa Seine July 18, 1900 WeolamenDUD acai yao. yh, Mala naka ced April 23, 1901 Vili e: WU Visosiee etter esr oes Y Februnry 26, 1902

(xv)

COLLABORATORS

I. LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS TO

*The asterisk designates the contributors to the fourth volume,

and in other waus.

*Apeus, Gro, Bs, Asst, Hortienlturist, KK. 1. Exp. Sta., Kingston, R. I. (Rhode Island. Rhubarb.)

*Apams, J. W., Nurseryman, Springfield, Mass. (Stephanandra, Viburnum.)

“ALLEN, C. L., Author of “Bulbs and Tuberous- rooted Plants,” Floral Park, N. Y. (Tulipa.)

AMES, OAKES, Asst. Dir. Botanie Garden, and Instructor in Botany in Harvard Univ., Cam- bridge, Mass. (Screral genera of orchids.)

ANprEWs, D. M., Nurseryman, Boulder, Colo. ((Enothera, Help on native western plants, especially hardy cacti.)

ARCHDEACON & Co., Commission merchants, New York, N. ¥. (dfushroom.)

ARNOLD, Jr., GEO., Gardener (formerly grower

Rochester, N. Y.

Opuntia.

of aster seed), (China

Aster.)

ATKINS, F. L., Florist, Rutherford, N. J. (Platy- cerium.) ATKINSON, Geo. F., Prof. of Botany, Cornell

Univ., Ithaca, N.Y. (Mushroom.)

“BatMeER, Prof. J. A., formerly Horticulturist, Wash. Exp. Sta. (MWashington.)

*Barcutay, F. W., Gardener, Haverford, Pa. (Herbaceous Perennials, Rhevia, Silphium, Sisyrinchiion, Smitacina, Statice, and

SaHqgiincria,

many others, mostly hardy herbs.)

*BaRKER, Micuaet, Elitor of “Gardening” tAmericun Florist,” Chiengo, Hl. (Solandra. Fallota, Many suggestions. )

*Barnes, CHARLES R., Prof. of Plant Physiology, Univ. of Chicago, Chieago, IN. (Fertilization. Flower. Teratology. Jas read proofs of physio- logical subjects. )

BarNes, Wituiam F., Hort. Soc., Topeka, Kans.

“Barron, Leonarp, Editor “American Garden-

ing,” New York, N.Y. (ose. ) 3AYERSDORFER, H., Dealer in florists’ supplies, Philadelphia, Pa. (2verlusting Flowers. )

*Breacu, Prof. S. A., Horticulturist, N. Y. Exp. Sta., Geneva, N.Y. (Corn. Thinning Fruit.)

Beanie, C. D., Botanist and horticulturist, Bilt- more, N.C. (Bamboo.)

and

Secretary Kans. State

( Mansas.)

THE CYCLOPEDIA

Many of the contributors have also assisted in reading prools

Beat, W. J., Prof. of Botany, Mich. Agric. Col- lege, Agricultural College, Mieh. (Grass. Has read proofs of many genera of grasses.)

BeckerT, Teo. F., Florist, Allegheny City, Pa. (Bougainvillaa.)

“BERCKMANS, P. J., Pomologist and nurseryman,

Angusta, Ga. (Lawns for the South. Melia. Michelia. Trees. Has read proof of many groups of importance in the South.)

Magnolia. Persimmon, Pomegranate

Vines,

*BesseY, CHARLES E., Prof. of Botany, Univ. of

Nebr., Lincoln, Nebr. (Plant. Lrees for the Plains. Has read several articles on grasses and native plants.)

Buair, Prof. J. C., Horticulturist, Il. Exp. Sta.,

Champaign, Il. (Greenhouse Glass, Illi- nois, )

*BRANDEGEE, Mrs. KATHARINE, Botanist, editor of Zoé, San Diego, Calif. cacti, as Mammillaria, Meclocactus, Pelecyphora, Pereskia, Phyllocactus, Pilocercus, Rhipsalis.)

BranDecEr, T. 8., Botanist, San Diego, Calif. (Nolina.)

(Several genera of

*BRAUNTON, Ernest, Landscape gardener, and editor of “California Florieulturist,” Los Angeles, Calif. (Neriwn, Palms, Phenia,

Pittosporum, Richardia, Rose, Schinus, Trees, Fines, aud other plants cultivated in southeru California.)

*BruckNeR, NicHot N., Dreer’s Nursery, River ton, N. J. (Lhe article Fern.” of tender ferns, Selaginella.)

*Bupp, J. L., Prof. Emeritus of Horticulture, Iowa Agric. Coll., Ames, Ia. (Roses for the

Has read proof of Iowa and of

Many groups

?

Prairie States. articles on important fruits.) *Burrum, Prof. B. C., Horticulturist, Wyo. Exp

Sta., Laramie, Wyo.

BURBANK, Lutuer, Plant-breeder, Santa Rosa, Calif. (Vieotunia. olus, ete.)

BURNETTE, Prof. F. H., Horticulturist, La. Exp. Sta., Baton Rouge, La. (Louisiana. )

Burriu, T. J., Prof. of Botany and Nortienlture, Univ. of IN., Urbana, Ml. ( Protoplasm.)

( Wyoming.)

Has read proofs of Gladi-

(xvii)

XVill

Exp.

Penn-

Burz, Prof. Gro. C., Horticulturist, Pa. Sta., State College, Pa. sylvania. )

*CamERoN, Ropert, Gardener, Botanie Garden of Harvard Univ., Cambridge, Mass. (Various articles and much help on vare plants, Alpinia, Campanula, Echinocactus, Nemophila, Primula, Ramonda, Ureeolina, ete.)

*Canninc, Epwarp J., Gardener, Smith College, Botanic Gardens, Northampton, Mass. (Mey articles and much help on rare and difficult plants. Anthurium, Echinocactus, Epiphyllum, Glorinia. Peat. Puya. Soil. Stocks, Stove Plants. Vines. Zingiber.)

*Cxrp, Prof. Frep W., Horticulturist, R. I. Exp. Sta. Kingston, R. I. (Nebraska. Botany and culture of bush-fruits, as Amelanchicr, Berberis, Blackberry, Buffalo Berry, Currant, Loganberry, Raspberry, Ribes.)

CLINKABERRY, Henry T., Gardener, Trenton, N. J. (Certain orchids, as Lelia.)

*Cuinton, L. A., Asst. Agriculturist, Cornell Exp. Sta., Ithaca, N. Y. (Soy Bean, Spurry.) *Cuose, C. P., Horticulturist, Del. Exp. Sta. (for-

merly Horticulturist Utah Exp. Sta.), Newark,

(Carnation.

Del. ( Utah.) Coates, LEONARD, Fruit-grower, Napa, Calif. (Olive. Orange. Has helped on other fruits.)

CocKERELL, T. D. A., Entomologist, East Las Vegas, N. M. (New Mexico.)

CoLuns, Joun §., Nid (Rea...)

*ConarbD, Henry S., Senior Fellow in Botany, Univ. of Pa., Philadelphia, Pa. (Nymphea. Victoria.)

Cook, O. F., Botanist in charge of investigations in Tropical Agriculture, Div. of Botany, U. 8. Dept. Agric., Washington, D.C. (Coffee. Pa- ritium, Help on Porto Rico, Sechium, Zingiber, and tropical plants. )

*CorBeTT, Prof. L. C., Horticulturist, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. 8S. Dept. Agric., formerly Horticulturist, W. Va. Exp. Sta., Morgantown, W.Va. (Storage. West Virginia.)

*CoutsTon, Mrs. M. B., Formerly assistant editor of “Garden and Forest,” Ithaca, N. ¥. (Va- rious native plants. Stiles.)

CouLTER, JOHN M., Professor and Head of the Dept. of Botany, Univ. of Chicago,*Chieago, Hl. (ehinocactus.)

*Coweti, Prof. Joun F., Dir. Buffalo Botanie Gar-

Fruit-grower, Moorestown,

deu, West Seneca, N. Y. (Odontoglossum. Phorminum, Rhus, Robinia, Sambucus, Sym- phoricarpos. Tilia.)

*Cowen, J. H., formerly Assistant in Horticulture, Colo, Exp. Sta., died 1900. plants, as Lepachys, Leucocrtnion,

(Certain Colorado Verbena. ) See personal note under “Verbena.”

COLLABORATORS

*Craia, Joun, Prof. of Extension Teaching in Ag- rie., Cornell Univ., Ithaea, N.Y. (Canada. Gooseberry. Kale, Kohlrabi. Pomology. Quince. Rape. Spraying. Thinning Frit.)

Craie, Roper, Florist, Philadelphia, Pa. (4rau- caria. <Ardisia. Codicewm. )

Craig, W. N., Gardener, North Easton, Mass. ( Mushroom.)

CRANDALL, Prof. C. 8., Div. of Forestry, U. 5. Dept. Washington, D. CC. (Colo- rado.)

*Cropp, CARL, Seedsman, Vaughan’s Seed Store, Chicago, Ill. (Stocks.)

CuLBERTSON, H., El Cajon Packing Company, FE] Cajon, Calif. (Peach.)

Cusuman, E. H., Gladiolus specialist, Sylvania, Ohio. ( Gladiolus.)

*Dartinaron, E. D., Superintendent of Trials, Fordhook Experimental Farm, Doylestown, Pa. (Sweet Pea. Helped on Pea.)

Daruineaton, H. D., Wholesale florist, specialist in heaths and hard-wooded plauts, Flushing, N. Y. (Epacris. Leptospermum. Pimelea, Has read proof of many articles on hard-wooded

Agric.,

plants )

*Davis, K. C., Horticulturist, W. Va. Exp. Sta., Morgantown, W. Va. (All genera in Ranuneu- lacee, e. g., Clematis, Nigella, Peonia, Ranun- culus. Help on West Virginia.)

*Davy, J. Burtt, Asst. Botanist, Univ. of Calif. Exp. Sta., Berkeley, Calif. (Trees and Vines of California, various Myrtacee, and many important subtropical subjects, as Acacia, Callistemon, Eu- genia, Bucalyptus, Maytenus, Pittosporum, Psid- ium, Romneya, Schinus, Streptosolen, Tristania, Umbellularia, Wind- breaks, and others.)

*Dawson, JACKSON, Gardener, Arnold Arboretum, Jamaica Plain, Mass. (Rose. )

Sollya, Washingtonia,

DEAN, JAMES, Florist, Bay Ridge, N.Y. (Vephrol- epis.) DEANE, Watrer, Botanist, Cambridge, Mass.

(Herbarium. Has read many proofs and helped on various botanical problems. )