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W 0 R K S

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M.A., F.R.S.,








VOL. V'll.














H. H. WILSON, M.A., F.R.S.,





VOL. n.




BOOK I. (continued).


The world overrun with trees: they are destroyed by the Prache- tasas. Soma pacifies them, and gives them Marisha to wife: lier story: the daughter of the nymph Pramlocha. Legend of Kai'idu. Marisha's former history. Daksha the son of the Prachetasas: his different characters: his sons: his daughters: theirmarriages and progeny : allusion to Prahhida, his descendant.

Whilst the Prachetasas were thus absorbed in their devotions, the trees spread, and overshadowed the un- protected earth ; and the people perished. The winds coukl not blow; the sky was shut out by the forests; and mankind was unable to labour for ten thousand years. When the sages, coming forth from the deep, beheld this, they were angry, and, being incensed, wind and flame issued from their mouths. The strong wind tore up the trees by their roots, and left them sear and dry; and the fierce fire consumed them; and the forests were cleared away. When Soma (the moon), the sovereign of the vegetable world, beheld all except a few of the trees destroyed, he went to the patriarchs, the Prachetasas, and said: "Restrain your indignation, princes, and listen to me. I will form an alliance be- tween you and the trees. Prescient of futurity, I have

II. 1


nourished, with my rays, this precious maiden, the daughter of the woods. She is called Marisha, and is, assuredly, the offspring of the trees. She shall be your bride, and the multiplier of the race of Dhruva. From a portion of your lustre and a portion of mine, 0 mighty sages, the patriarch Daksha shall be born of her, who, endowed with a part of me, and composed of your vigour, shall be as resplendent as fire, and shall multiply the human race.

"There was formerly (said Soma) a sage named Kahdu, eminent in holy wisdom, who practised pious austerities on the lovely borders of the Gomati river. The king of the gods sent the nymph Pramlocha to disturb his penance; and the sweet -smiling damsel diverted the sage from his devotions. They lived together, in the valley of Mandara, for a hundred and fifty years, during which the mind of the Muni was wholly given up to enjoyment. At the expiration of this period, the nymph requested his permission to return to heaven; but the Muni, still fondly attached to her, prevailed upon her to remain for some time longer; and the graceful damsel continued to reside for another hundred years, and delight the great sage by her fascinations. Then again she preferred her suit to be allowed to return to the abodes of the gods; and again the Muni desired her to remain. At the expira- tion of more than a century, the nymph once more said to him, with a smiling countenance: 'Brahman, I depart.' 13ut the Muni, detaining the fine-eyed damsel, replied: 'Nay, stay yet a little; you will go hence for a long period.' Afraid of incurring an imprecation, the graceful nymph continued with the sage for nearly


two liLindred years more, repeatedly asking his per- mission to go to the region of the king of the gods, but as often desired, by him, to remain. Dreading to be cursed by liim, and excelUng in amiable manners, well knowing, also, the pain that is inflicted by separa- tion from an object of affection, she did not quit the Muni, whose mind, wholly subdued by love, became, every day, more strongly attached to her.

"On one occasion the sage was going forth from their cottage in a great hurry. The nymph asked him where he was going. 'The day\ he replied, 'is draw- ing fast to a close. I must ]:>erform the Sandhya wor- ship; or a duty will be neglected.' The nymph smiled mirthfully, as she rejoined: 'Why do you talk, grave sir, of this day drawing to a close? Your day is a day of many years, a day that must be a marvel to all. Explain what this means.' The Muni said: 'Fair damsel, you came to tlie river-side at dawn. I beheld you then; and you then entered my hermitage. It is now the revolution of evening; and the day is gone. What is the meaning of this lauohter? Tell me the truth.' Pramlocha answered: 'You say rightly, venerable Brahman, that I came hither at morning dawn. But several hundred years have passed since the time of my arrival. This is the truth.' The Mimi, on hearing this, was seized with astonishment, and asked her how long he had enjoyed her society. To which the nymph replied, that they had lived together nine hundred and seven years, six months, and three days. The Muni asked her if she spoke the truth, or if she was in jest; for it appeared to him that they had spent but one day together. To which Pramlocha replied, that she



should not dare, at any time, to tell him who Hved in the path of piety an untruth, but, particularly, when she had been enjoined, by him, to inform him what had passed.

"When the Muni, princes, had heard these words, and knew that it was the truth, he began to reproach himself bitterly, exclaiming: 'Fie, fie upon me! My penance has been interrupted; the treasure of the learned and the pious has been stolen from me; my judgment has been blinded. This woman has been created, by some one, to beguile me. Brahma is beyond the reach of those agitated by the waves of infirmity.^ I had subdued my passions, and was about to attain divine knowledge. This was foreseen by him by w^hom this girl has been sent hither. Fie on the passion that has obstructed my devotions! All the austerities that would have led to acquisition of the wisdom of the Vedas have been rendered of no avail by passion that is the road to hell.' The pious sage, having thus re- viled himself, turned to the nymph, who was sitting nigh, and said to her : ' Go, deceitful girl, whither thou wilt. Thou hast performed the office assigned thee by the monarch of the gods, of disturbing my penance by thy fascinations. I will not reduce thee to ashes by the fire of my wrath. Seven paces together is suf- ficient for the friendship of the virtuous: but thou and I have dwelt together.* And, in truth, what fault hast

^ Or, 'immersed in the six Urmis' (^f^'^^)? explained hunger, thirst, sorrow, stupefaction, decay, and death.

BOOK r., CHAP. XV. 5

tliou committed? Why should I be wroth with tliee? The sin is wholly mine; in that I could not suhdue my passions. Yet fie upon thee, who, to gain favour with Indra, hast disturbed my devotions, vile bundle of delusion!'

"Thus spoken to by the Muni, Pramlocha stood trembling, whilst big drops of perspiration started from every pore; till he angrily cried to her: 'Depart, begone.' She then, reproached by him, went forth from his dwelling, and, passing through the air, wiped the perspiration from her person with the leaves of the trees. The nymph went from tree to tree, and, as, with the dusky shoots that crowned their summits, she dried her limbs, which were covered with moisture, the child she had conceived by the Rishi came forth from the pores of her skin, in drops of perspiration. The trees received the living dews; and the winds collected them into one mass. This", said Soma, "I matured by my rays; and gradually it increased in size, till the exhalation that had rested on the tree-tops be- came the lovely girl named Marisha. The trees will give her to you, Prachetasas. Let your indignation be appeased. She is the progeny of Kandu, the child of Pramlocha, the nursling of the trees, the daughter of the wind and the moon. The holy Kandu, after the interruption of his pious exercises, went, excellent princes,* to the region of Vishnu, termed Purushottama,

* The v?ord "princes" is here supplied by the translator; and, for its epithet, "excellent", all the MSS. I have seen give ^TtRTI, an ad- jective in the singular number, and belonging to Kaiidu.


where, Maitreya/ with his whole mind, he devoted him- self to the adoration of Hari; standing fixed, with np- lifted arms, and repeating the prayers that comprehend the essence of divine truth." ^

' There is some confusion, here, in regard to the person ad- dressed: but the context shows that the insertion of Maitreya's name is an inadvertence , and that the passage is a continuation of Soma's speech to the Prachetasas.

2 The phrase is ^^■qiT'T^ ^ *"- WTfi, I 'made up of the further boundary of Brahma'; implying either 'comprehending the Supreme or Brahma, and transcendental wisdom, Para'; or 'consisting of the furthest limits (Para) or truths of the Vedas or Brahma'; that is, being the essence of the Vedanta philosophy. The hymn that follows is, in fact, a mantra or mystical prayer, commencing with the reiteration of the word Para and Para; as:

xrrt ^ f^^T^T^TT :

Para means 'supreme, infinite'; and Para, 'the further bank or limit', the point that is to be attained by crossing a river or sea, or, figuratively, the world or existence. Vishnu, then, is Param, that which nothing surpasses; and Param, the end or object of existence: he is Aparaparal:', the furthest bound of that which is illimitable, or space and time: he is Param parebhyah, above or beyond the highest, being beyond or superior to all the elements : he is Paramartharupi, or identical with final truth, or knowledge of soul: he is Brahmaparah, the object or essence of spiritual wisdom. Paraparabhiitab is said to imply the further limit (Para) of rudimental matter (Para). He is Parah , or chief, Paranam, of those objects which are beyond the senses: and he is Paraparah, or the boundary of boundaries ; that is , he is the comprehensive

* Tho MSS. which I have examined exhibit, without exception, Tf^:


The Pi-aclietasas said: "We are desirous to hear the transcendental prayers by inaudibly reciting which the pious Kandu propitiated Kesava." On which Soma repeated as follows: '"Vishnu is beyond the boundary of all things; he is the infinite; he is beyond that which is boundless; he is above all that is above; he exists as finite truth; he is the object of the Veda; the limit of elemental being; unappreciable by the senses; pos- sessed of illimitable might. He is the cause of cause; the cause of the cause of cause; the cause of finite cause; and, in effects, he, both as every object and agent, preserves the universe. He is Brahma the lord; Brahma all beings; Brahma the progenitor of all beings; the imperishable. He is the undecaying, eternal, un- born Brahma, incapable of increase or diminution. Pu- rushottama is the everlasting, uncreated, immutable, Brahma. May the imperfections of my nature be anni- hilated (through his favour).' Reciting this eulogium, the essence of divine truth, and propitiating Kesava, Kandu obtained final emancipation.*

"Who Marisha was of old, I will also relate to you; as the recital of her meritorious acts will be beneficial to you. She was the widow of a prince, and left child- less at her husband's death. She, therefore, zealously worshipped Vishnu; who, being gratified by her adora- tion, appeared to her, and desired her to demand a

investure of, and exterior to , those limits by wliich soul is con- fined; he is free from all incumbrance or impediment. The pas- sage may be interpreted in different ways, according to the in- genuity with which the riddle is read.

Siddhi, in the original.


boon : on which she revealed to him the wishes of her heart. 'I have been a widow, lord', she exclaimed, 'even from my infancy; and my birth has been in vain. Unfortunate have I been, and of little use, 0 sovereign of the world. Now, therefore, I pray thee, that, in suc- ceeding births, I may have honourable husbands, and a son equal to a patriarch (amongst men). May I be possessed of affluence and beauty; may I be pleasing in the sight of all ; and may I be born out of the ordi- nary course. Grant these prayers, 0 thou who art propitious to the devout.'* Hrishikesa, the god of gods, the supreme giver of all blessings, thus prayed to, raised her from her prostrate attitude, and said: "In another life you shall have ten husbands of mighty prowess, and renowned for glorious acts. And you shall have a son, magnanimous and valiant, distin- guished by the rank of a patriarch, f from whom the various races of men shall multiply, and by whose posterity the universe shall be filled. You, virtuous lady, shall be of marvellous birth ;t and you shall be endowed with grace and loveliness, delighting the hearts of men.' Thus having spoken, the deity disap- peared; and the princess was, accordingly, afterwards born as Marisha, who is given to you for a wife."^

' This part of the legend is peculiar to our text; and the

Marisha was, thus, promised a son "endowed with the attributes of a patriarch." X Ayonija.


Soma having concluded, the Prachetasas took Ma- risha, as he had enjoined them, righteously to wife, relinquishing their indignation against the trees; and upon her they begot the eminent patriarch Daksha, who liad (in a former life) been born as the son of Brahma.^

whole story of Marisha's birth is nowhere else so fully detailed. The penance of the Prachetasas, and its consequences, are related in the Agni, Bhagavata, Matsya, Padma, Vayu, and Brahma Purcirias; and allusion is briefly made to Marisha's birth. Her oriain from Kandu and Pramlocha is narrated in a different place in the Brahma Purtina, where the austerities of Kandu, and the necessity for their interruption , are described. The story , from that authority, was translated by the late Professor Chezy, and is published in the first number of the Journal Asiatique.

The second birth of Daksha, and his share in the peopling of the earth, is narrated in most of the Puranas in a similar manner. It is, perhaps, the original legend; for Daksha seems to be an irregular adjunct to the Prajapatis or mind-born sons of Brahma (see Vol. I., p. 100, note 2); and the allegorical nature of his posterity in that character (Vol. I., p. 109) intimates a more recent origin. Nor does that series of descendants apparently occur in the Mahabharata; although the existence of two Dakshas is especially remarked there (Moksha Dharma):

In the Adi Parvan, which seems to be the freest from subsequent improvements, the Daksha noticed is the son of the Prachetasas. The incompatibility of the two accounts is reconciled hy referring the two Dakshas to different Manwantaras; the Daksha who pro- ceeded from Brahma as a Prajapati being born in the first, or Swayambhuva, and the son of the Prachetasas, in the Chakshu- sha, Manwantara. The latter, however, as descended from Uttana- pada, should belong to the first period also. It is evident that great confusion has been made, by the Puranas, in Daksha's history.

Mahabharata, Sdnti-parvan, 7573.


This great sage, for the furtherance of creation, and the increase of mankind, created progeny. Obeying the command of Brahma, he made movable and im- movable things," bipeds and quadrupeds, f and, sub- sequently, by his will, gave birth to females, ten of whom he bestowed on Dharma, thirteen on Kasyapa, and twenty-seven, who regulate the course of time, on the Moon.^ Of these, the gods, the Titans, t the snake- gods, cattle, and birds, the singers and dancers of the courts of heaven, the spirits of evil, § and other beings, were born. From that period forwards, living creatures were engendered by sexual intercourse. Before the time of Daksha, they were variously propagated, by the will, by sight, by touch, and by the influence of religious austerities practised by devout sages and holy saints. II

Maitreya. Daksha, as I have formerly heard, was born from the right thumb of Brahma. Tell me, great Muni, how he was regenerate as the son of the Pra- chetasas. Considerable perplexity also arises in my mind, how he, who, as the son of Marisha, was the grandson of Soma, could be also his father-in-law.

Paras ARA. Birth and death are constant in all creatures. Rishis and sages, possessing divine vision,

That is, they are the Nakshatras or lunar asterisms.

* The Sanskrit has avara and vara, "inferior" and "superior"; and these epithets, not being given in the neuter, but in the masculine, refer to putra, Professor Wilson's "progeny".

t See Orujinal Sanskrit Texts, Part I., pp. 26 and 27.

+ Daitya.

§ Ddnava.

li See Original Sanskrit Texts, Part I., p. 27.


are not [)ei'plexed by this. Dakslui and the other enunent Munis are present in every age, and, in die interval of destruction, cease to be.^ Of this the wise man entertains no doubt. Amongst them of okl there

' 'They are removed' (f'T'^"^^), "wliich the commentator explains by ^^ip^cf^"^^ | 'are absorbed, as if they were fast asleep.' But, in every age or Yuga, according to the text, in every Manwantara, according to the comment theRishis reappear; the circumstances of their origin only being varied. Daksha, therefore, as remarked in the preceding note, is the son of Brahma, in one period, the son of the Prachetasas, in another. So Soma, in the Swayambhuva Manwantara, was born as the son of Atri; in the Chakshusha, he was produced by churning the ocean. The words of our text occur in the Hari Vaifisa, * with an unimportant variation :

'Birth and obstruction are constant in all beings. But Rishis, and those men who are wise, are not perplexed by this' ; that is, not, as rendered above, by the alternation of life and death, but, ac- cording to the commentator on the Hari Vaihsa, by a very difier- ent matter, the prohibition of unlawful marriages. Utpatti, 'birth of progeny', is the result of their will; Nirodha, 'obstruction', is the law prohibiting the intermarriage of persons connected by the offering of- the funeral cake: f?!'^^ f^<5I??^f^'^T^^'%f^ fsnT^r: I to which Rishis and sages are not subject, either from their matrimonial unions being merely Platonic, or from the bad example set by Brahma, who, according to the Vedas, approached his own daughter: -R^TTTfTl^' ^^ff rlT'T^^T^Tf^fn ^f^T: I a mystery we have already had occasion to advert to (Vol. L, p. 104, note 2). The explanation of the text, however, given by the commentator appears forced , and less natural than the inter- pretation preferred above.

* Stanza 111.


was neither senior nor junior. Rigorous penance and acquired power were the sole causes of any difference of degree amongst these more than human beings.*

Maitreya. Narrate to me, venerable Brahman, at length, the birth of the gods. Titans, f Gandharvas, serpents, and goblins, t

Parasaea. In what manner Daksha created living creatures, as commanded by Brahma, you shall hear. In the first place, he willed into existence the deities, the Rishis, the quiristers of heaven, § the Titans, || and the snake -gods. Finding that his will-born progeny did not multiply themselves, he determined, in order to secure their increase, to establish sexual intercourse as the means of multiplication. For this purpose he espoused Asiknf, the daughter of the patriarch Viraiia,^ a damsel addicted to devout practices, the eminent

' This is the usual account of Daksha's marriage, and is (hat of the Maliabharata, Adi Parvan (p. 113), and of the Brahma Pu- raiia, which the Hari Vamsa, in the first part, repeats. In another portion, the Pushkara Mahatmya, however, Daksha, it is said, converts half himself into a female, by whom he begets the daughters presently to be noticed :

This seems to be merely a new edition of an old story.

fTXT fl^ ^"O^'S ^f5THT^"t^ ^KW'l II

See Original Sanskrit "Texts, Part I., p. 27. f Ddnava. X Bakahas. § Gandharva. II Asura.


supportress of the world. By her the great father of mankind begot five thousand mighty sons, through whom he expected the workl shouki be peopled. Nti- rada, the divine Rishi, observing them desirous to multiply posterity, approached them, and addressed them in a friendly tone: "Illustrious Haryaswas, it is evident that your intention is to beget posterity. But first consider this why should you, who, like fools, know not the middle, the height, and depth of the world,' propagate offspring? When your intellect is no more obstructed by interval, height, or depth, then how, fools, shall ye not all behold the term of the uni- verse?"* Having heard the w^ords of Narada, the sons

' ^^^'tT"'^'^'?^"^ I The comnientatoi- explains it to mean the oriiiin, duration, and termination of subtile rudimental body; but the Padma and Linga Puraiias distinctly express it, 'the extent of the earth ' :

t^jft ^^"^ *fTTt vr^rTi ^^mTf^5?l II ^Tf^T ^r! "^^ % ^T^T ^T^ff % ^^t I ^^^::^1T'^%^ ^^ ^^^ % TT^T: II

The larger commentary remarks as follows, on the last two of these stanzas: -^TT^irT ^(?n^T^ ^T^TT^^t I rfTq^TWTf^TfTWt


of Dakslia dispersed themselves through the regions, and, to the present day, have not returned; as rivers (that lose themselves) in the ocean (come back no more).

The Haryaswas having disappeared, the patriarch Daksha begot, by the daughter of Vh-aha, a thousand other sons. They, who were named Sabalaswas, were desirous of engendering posterity, but were dissuaded, by Narada, in a similar manner. They said to one another: ''What the Muni has observed is perfectly just. We must follow the jmth that our brothers have travelled; and, when we have ascertained the extent of the universe, we will nudtiply our race." Accord- ingly, they scattered themselves through the regions; and, like rivers (flowing) into the sea, they returned not again. ^ Henceforth brother seeking for brother dis-

' Naraila's interference, and the fruitless generation of the first progeny of Daksha, is an old legend. The Mahabharata (Adi Piirvan p. 113) notices only one set of sons, who, it is said, obtained Moksha or liberation through Nareda"s teaching them the Sankhya philosophy. The Brahma, Matsya, Vayu , Linga, Padma, Agni, and Bhagavata Puranas tell the story much as in the text, and, not unfrequently , in the same words. In general, they merely refer to the imprecation denounced upon Narada, as above. The Bhagavata specifics the imprecation to be perpetual peripateticism. Daksha says to him: 'There shall not be a resting- place for thee in all these regions:'


appears, throiigli ignorance of the products of the first

* Bhdgavata-'purdna, VI., 5, 43. The account of Narada's curse,— a ffood specimen of the Blidgavata-purdim which takes up the whole of the chapter here referred to, is thus rendered by Burnouf:

"(,"uka dit: Le puissant Pradjapati, dunt la Maya dc Vichnu augnientait les forces, eut de sa femme, fille de I'antchadjana, dix niille fds, nonmn's les Tlarya^vas.

"Ces fils de Dakcha, qui etaient tons uuis par les nicmes devoirs et les nienies vertus, invites par leur pere a se livrer a la creation des etres, se retirerent du cote de I'occident.

"La, au confluent du Sindhu et de Tocean, est Ic vaste etang de Na- rayanasaras, qui est frequonte par les solitaires et par les Siddhas.

"Ces jeunes gens, en qui le seul contact de ces eaux avait efface les souillures contractees par leur canir, et dont rintelligeuce etait exercee aux devoirs de Tascetisme le plus eleve,

"Se livrerent, conformement aux ordres de leur pere, a de rudes mortifications; le llichi des Devas les vit, pendant qu'ils faisaient tons leurs efforts pour multiplier les creatures.

"Et il leur dit: 6 Ilarya^vas, comment pourrez-vous ereer les otres, sans avoir vu les bornes de la terre? Certes, quoique vous soyez les souverains [du monde], vous etes des insenses.

"Vous ne connaissez ui le royaume ou il n'y a qu'un homme, iii la caverne dont on ne voit pas Tissue, ni la femme aux nombreuses formes, ni I'homme qui est le mari de la courtisane,

"Ni le fleuve dont les eaux coulent dans deux directions opposees, ni la merveilleuse demeure des vingt-cinq, ni le cygne au beau langage, ni la roue tonrnant d'elle-meme, comi)osee de foudres et de lames tran- chantes.

"Comment done, ignorant les ordres de votre sage pere, pourrez-vous accomplir une creation convenable?

"Ayant entendu ces paroles, les ITarya^vas, dont Fesprit etait done d'une penetration naturelle, se mirent a reflechir tout seuls sur le langage enigmatique du llichi des Dieux.

"La terre, c'est Tame, que Ton nomme la \ie, qui n'a pas de com- mencement, qui est'le lien de I'homme: quel besoin a-t-ou d'a-uvres impuissantes, quand on n'en a pas vu raneantissement?

"L'homme unique est le Seigneur supreme, qui est Bhagavat, cet Etre souverain, qui repose sur lui-meme et [embrasse tous les etres sous] sa qnatrieme forme: quel besoin a-t-on d'd-uvres impuissantes, quand on n'a pas vu que TEsprit est incree?

16 VISHNU pun ANA.

principle of things. Daksha the patriarch, on finding

The Kurmti repeats the imprecation, merely to the eifect that Narada shall perish, and gives no legend. In the Brahma Vai-

"La caverne dont I'homme ne revient pas plus que celui qui est uue fois entre dans le ciel des regions de TAbime, c'est TEtre dont I'eclat est interieur: quel besoin a d'a>uvres inipuissantes celui qui ue le counait pas en ce monde?

"La femme aux nombreuses formes, c'est Tintelligence de I'esprit, la- quelle, comme la courtisane, prend divers caracteres: quel l)esoin a d'ceuvres inipuissantes celui qui u'en a pas yu le terme?

"Semblable au mari d'une epouse coupable, I'esprit, par son union avec I'intelligence, perd la souverainete et roule dans le cercle de la transmigration: quel besoin a d'anivres inipuissantes celui qui ne connait pas ses voies?

"Le ileuve, c'est I'lllusion, qui produit a la fois la creation et la des- truction, et qui s'agite au bord de sa rive: quel besoin a-t-il d'onivres inipuissantes rhomme enivre qui ne la reconnait pas?

"L'esprit est le merveilleux miroir des vingt-cinq principes: quel besoin a d'ceuvres impuissautes celui qui en ce monde ne connait pas I'Esprit supreme?

"Quand on a renonce a la doctrine qui fait obtenir le Seigneur, qui enseigne la delivrance de tous les liens, et qu'on ignore la science dont les paroles sont pures, quel besoin a-t-on d'a?uvres inipuissantes?

"La roue qui tourne, c'est celle du Temps, roue tranchante qui enleve tout dans I'univers: quel besoin a d'a'uvres inipuissantes celui qui en ce monde n'en reconnait pas I'independance?

"Le pere, c'est la science: comment I'liomme qui ne connait pas ses ordres touchant I'inaction, pourrait-il, avec la confiance qu'il accorde aux qualites, marcher selon ses enseignements ?

"Les llaryacvas unanimes dans leurs pensees etant arrives a cette conviction, tournerent autour de Narada avec respect, et entrerent dans la voie d'oii Ton ne revient plus.

"Et le solitaire qui tient sa pensee indissolublement unie au lotus des pieds de Ilfichikc^'a que manifeste le Veda, se mit de nouveau a parcourir le monde.

"En apprenant que Narada etait la cause de la perte de ses iils qui brillaient par la vertu, Dakcha penetre de douleur se lamenta d'avoir donne le jour a des enfants vertueux qui sont souvent une source de regrets.

"Mais console par Adja, Dakcha eut encore de la fille de Pautchadjana des uiilliers de tils nommes les (^abala9vas.


that all these his sons had vanished, was incensed, and denounced an imprecation upon Narada.

varta, Narada is cursed by Brahma, on a similar occasion, to become the chief of the Gandharvas; whence his musical pro-

" Charges aussi par leur pere d'accoinplir la creation des etres, ces houimes, fermes dans leurs desseins, se rendirent a I'etaug de Narayaiia, oil leurs freres aines etaieiit parvenus a la perfection.

"Purifies, par le seul contact de ses eaux, des souillures qu'avaient contractees leurs co'urs; repetant a voix basse le nom supreme de Brahma, ils s'y livrerent a de grandes austerites.

"Ne se nourrissant que d'eau pendant quelques mois, et pendant d'autres que d'air, ils houorerent Idaspati (Vichnu) en recitant ce Mantra :

'"Om! Adressons notre adoration a Narayaiia, qui est Purucha la grande ame, qui est le sejour de la pure qualite de la Bonte, qui est le grand Brahma'.

"Narada voyant que ces sages pensaient a reprendre I'ffiuvre de la creation, se rendit aupres d'eux et leur tint, comme a leurs freres, un langage enigmatique.

"Fils de Dakcha, leur dit-il, ecoutez les conseils que je vous donne; suivez, Yous qui avez de Taifection pour vos freres, la voie ou ils out marche.

" Le frere qui connaissant la loi, suit la route que lui ont tracee ses freres, est un ami de la vertu qui obtient de jouir du bonheur avec les Maruts.

"Ayant ainsi parle, Narada dent le regard est infaillible se retira; et les fils de Dakcha, 6 roi respecte, entrereut dans la voie qu'avaient suivie leurs freres.

"Marchant, comme leurs aines, d'une mauiere reguliere dans la voie qui ramenant Thomme an dedans de lui, le conduit a I'Etre supreme, ils ne revinrent pas plus que ue reviendront les nuits deja ecoulees.

"En ce temps-la le Pradjapati voyant de nombreux prodiges, apprit que la mort de ses enfants etait, comme celle de leurs aines, Tceuvre de Narada.

"Desole de la perte de ses enfants, il se mit en fureur centre Narada, et la levre tremblante de colere, il parla ainsi au Richi.

"Dakcha dit: Ah! mechant, avec ton exterieur qui est celui des gens de bien, tu m'as fait du mal en enseignant a mes fils vertueux la voie des ascetes qui mendieiit.

" [En leur donnant ce conseil] avant qu'ils eussent acquitte les trois dettes [de la vie] et qu'ils eussent accompli des ceuvres, tu as detruit leur bonheur pour ce monde et pour I'autre.

II. 2


Then, Maitreya, the wise patriarch, it is handed

pensities. But the Bliagavata. VI., 7, has the reverse of this legend, and makes him, first, a Gandharva, then a Sudra, then the son of Brahma. The Brahma Furana, and, after it, the Hari Vaiiisa. and the Vj'iyu Purfina, have a different, and not verv in- telligihle, story. Daksha, being about to pronounce an impreca- tion upon Niirada, was appeased by Brahma and the Rishis; and it was agreed, between them, tliat Narada should be again born, as the son of Kasyapa, by one of Daksha's daughters. This seems to be the gist of the legend : but it is very confusedly told. The version of the Brahma Purai'ia, which is the same as that of the Hari Vamsa,* may be thus rendered: "The smooth-speaking

"Et cependant, homme sans pitie, toi qui te plais a troubler I'esprit des enfants, tii te montres avec impudence an milieu des serviteurs de Hari dont tu detruis la gloire.

"Certes lis eprouvent line constante sollicitude pour tons les etres, les serviteurs de Bhagavat, toi excepte, toi reiineuii de la bienveillance, qui fais du mal a ceux qui ne t'en veulent pas

"Non, quoique tu penses de la quietude qui tranche le lien de Taffection, tes conseils, 6 toi qui n'as que I'apparence trompeuse du sage, ue con- duirout jamais les hommes au detachement.

"II ne salt rien, Thomme qui n'a pas eprouve Timpression cuisaute des objets; mais une fois qu'il la ressentie, il se degoute Ini-meme du monde, bien mieux que celui dont des etres superieurs rompent les desseins.

"Quoique tu nous aies fait uu mal intolerable, a nous qui sommes voues aux ceuvres et qui vivons en uiaitres de maison vertueux, nous savons supporter ta mauvaise action.

"Mais parce qu'en interrompant ma descendance tu m'as fait du mal a deux reprises, a cause de cela, 6 insense, je te condamne a errer a travers les mondes, saus pouvoir t'arreter nulle part.

"(,'uka dit: Ainsi soit-il, repondit Narada qui est estime des gens de bien; car le langage de Dakcha etait si sage, qu' I(;vara lui-meme Teiit endure,"

* The account there given 122-129 is, as edited, iu these words:


down to us, being anxious to people the w^orld, created

Narada addressed the sons of Dakslia , for their destruction and his own: for the Muni Kasyapa begot him as a son, who was the son of Brahma, on the daughter of Dakslia, througli fear of the hitter's imprecation. He was formerly the son of Parame- shthin (Brahma): and the excellent sage Kasyapa next begot him, as if he were his father, on Asikni, the daughter of Viraiia. Whilst he was engaged in beguiling the sons of the patriarch, Daksha, of resistless power, determined on his destruction. But he was solicited, by Brahma, in the presence of the great sages; and it was agreed, between them, that Narada, the son of Brahma, should be born of a daughter of Daksha. Consequently, Daksha gave his daughter to Paramesht'hin ; and, by her, w^as Narada born." Now, several difficulties occur here. Asikni is the wife, not the daughter, of Daksha. But this may be a blunder of the compiler; for, in the parallel passage of the Vayu, no name occurs. In the next place, who is this daughter? For, as we shall see, the progeny of all Daksha's daughters are fully detailed; and in no authority consulted is Narada mentioned as the son of either of them, or as the son of Kasyapa. Daksha, too, gives his daughter, not to Kasyapa, but to Parameshthin or Brahma. The commentator on the Hari Vamsa solves this by saying he gives

^^ t iff rffr ^^TT^^r^'^f^: I ^t ^ ff w^r^wt ^T^: -^T^f^^T II

^^JTRTT ^TT^T ^ <^^ 5"^ ^f^fj II

cnfr ^: ^fit -RT^Tf^^ % xrr^f^^ i


sixty daughters of the daughter of Viraiia;^ ten of whom he gave to Dharma, thirteen to Kasyapa, and

her to Brahnui, for Kasyapa. The same bargain is noticed in the Vayu; but Narada is also said, there, to be adopted by Kasyapa: ^ f^l?; ^r^tr^f?T Iff^TT: | Again, however, it gives Daksha's imprecation in the same vv^ords as the Hari Variisa ; a passage, by the way, omitted in the Brahma :

'Narada, perish (in your present form); and take up your abode in the womb.' Whatever may be the original of this legend , it is, evidently, imperfectly given by the authorities here cited. The French translation of the passage in the Hari Variisa f can scarcely be admitted as correct. Assuredly

is not 'le Devarchi Dakcha, epoux d'Asikni, fille de Virana, fut I'aieul de cet illustre Mouni, ainsi regenere.'+ %'^f'^^TT^I is, more consistently, said, by the commentator, to mean Kasyapa. The Vayu Puraria, in another part, a description of the different orders of Rishis, states that the Devarshis Parvata and Narada were sons of Kasyapa :

In the account of Kiirtavirya, in the Brahma Purana and Hari Variisa, Narada is introduced as a Gandharva , the son of Vari- dasa; being the same, according to the commentator on the latter, as the Gandharva elsewhere called Upabarharia.

' The prior specification (p. 10) was fifty. The Mahabharata, (Adi Parvan, 113, aud, again, Moksha Dharma), has the same number. The Bhagavata, Kurma, Padnia, Linga, and Vayu Purarias state sixty. The former is, perhaps, the original; as the fullest and most consistent details relate to them and their posterity.

* Harivamsa, 140.

t Stanza 125.

+ M. Lauglois's Translation, Vol. I., p. 13.


twenty- seven to Soma, four to Arishtanenu, two to Bahuputra, two to Angiras, and two to Krisaswa.* I will tell you their names. Arundbati, Vasu, Yami,f Lamba, Bhanu, Marutwati, Sankalpa, Muburta, Sadbya, and Viswa were tbe ten wives of Dbarma,^ and bore him the following progeny. The sons of Viswa were

' This is the usual list of Dharma's wives. The Bhagavatat substitutes Kakubh for Arundhati. The Padma Puraria, Matsya Puraiia, andHariVamsa contain two different accounts ofDaksha's descendants. The first agrees with our text: the second, which is supposed to occur in the Padma Kalpa, is somewhat varied, particularly as to the wives of Dharma, who are said to be five. The nomenclature varies, or:

Padma. Hari VaAsa. Matsya.

Lakshmi Lakshmi Lakshmi

Saraswati Kirtti Saraswati

Ganga Sadhya Sadhya

Viswesa Viswa Viswesa

Savitri Marutwati Urjaswati

There is evident inaccuracy in all the copies; and the names may, in some instances, be erroneous. From the succeeding enumeration of their descendants, it appears that Kama was the son of Lakshmi; the Sadhyas, of Sadhya; the Viswadevas, of Viswa; the Maruts,§ of Marutwati; and the Vasus, of Devi, who may be either the Saraswati , or Savitri , of the previous enume- ration.

* According to the Bhagavata-purdna, VI., 6, 2, these sixty daughters were bestowed away as follows: Dharma had ten; Prajapati, twelve; Indii, twenty-seven; Bhiita, Angiras, and Krisaswa, two each; and Tarksha, the rest, namely, tive. By Prajapati and Tarksha are meant Ka.syapa, who, thus, bad seventeen. Indn is the same as Soma.

t Several MSS. have Jami; one has Jami.

: VI., 6, 4.

§ Read "Marutwats". See my first note in the next page.


the Viswaclevas;^ and the Sadhyas/ those of Sadhya, The Marutwats* were the children of Marutwati; the Vasus, of Vasu; the Bhanus (or suns), of Bhanu; and the deities presiding over moments, f of Mu- hurta. Ghosha v^^as the son of Lamba (an arc of the heavens); Nagavithi (the milky- way t), the daughter

' The Viswadevas are a class of gods to whom sacrifices should be offered daily. Manu, III., 121. § They are named in some of the Puranas, as the Vayu and Matsya : the former speci- fying ten; the latter, twelve.!]

^ The Sadhyas, according to the Vayu, are the personified rites and prayers of the Vedas, born of the metres, and partakers of the sacrifices:

The same work names twelve, which are, all, names of sacrifices and formulae; as: Darsa, Pauriiamasa, Biihadaswa , Rathantara, &c. The Matsya Purana, Padma Puraria, and Hari Variisa have a different set of seventeen appellations , apparently of arbitrary selection, as Bhava, Prabhava, Isa, Aruni, &c. IF

* Professor Wilson had "Maruts or winds". The Marutwats, "attended by the winds " , are the Indras. The mother of the Maruts was Diti. See Chapter XXI. ad finem.

t Called, in the original, Mnhiirtajas. The Bhdgavata-purdna, VI., 6, 9, calls them Mauhiirtikas.

* ? The hirger commentary observes : cTRT^^ | ^f^^STTf^'f'^'^-

T^it ^^f : I

t^g^ ff ^tfTc^T'^t ■RTfTf^>Tt^'^ II

II The MdrkaMeya-purdna, I., 7, 62, speaks of only five.

*^ "It would seem that, in Sayaiia's day, the purport of the designation Sadhya had become uncertain. They are named amongst the minor divinities, in the Ainara-koia; and from Bharatamalla we learn that they were twelve in number, but no other peculiarity is specified." Professor Wilson's Translation of the Riy-veda, Vol. II., p. 144, note.

BOOK I., ClIAl'. W.


of Yaiiii"' (iiis^it). The divisions of the earth M^ere horn of Arniidhati: and Sankalpa ([)ions |)in'pose), the sonl of all, was the son of Sankalpa. The deities called Vasns, because, preceded by fire, they abound in splendour and might, ^ are, severally, named Apa, Dhruva, Soma, Dharaf (firet), Anila (wind), Anala (fire), Pratyusha (day-break), and Prabhasa (light). The four sons of Apa were Vaitandya, Srama (weariness), Sranta (fatigue), andDhur§ (burthen). Kala (time), the cherisher of the world, was the son of Dhruva. The son of Soma was Varchas (light), who was the father of Varchaswin (radiance). Dhara had, by his wife Manohara (loveliness), Dravina, Hutahavyavaha, Sisira, Prana, and Ramana.'! The two sons of Anila (wind), by his wife Siva, were Manojava (swift as thought) and Avijnatagati (untraceable motion). The son of Agni (fire), Kumara, was born in a clump of Sara reeds: his sons were Sakha, Visakha, Naigameya, and Prishthaja. The offspring of the Krittikas was named Karttikeya. The son of Pratyusha was the Rishi named Devala, who had two philosophic and

^ Or, according to the Padma Puraria, because they are always present in light, or luminous irradiation:

* Here this word occurs with the last syllable short; as iu the Bhd- gavata-purdna, VI., 6, 4 and 6.

t For "Dhava" in the former edition,— a typographical error. t ?

§ Nowhere do I find this reading, but Dhuni, Bhuri, Dhwani, and Dhuri.

II Varana and Ravaiia are variants.

•[ Professor Wilson has since defined them as "the personified solar rays." Translation of the Rig-veda, Vol. II , p. 122, note.


intelligent sons/ The sister of Vachaspati,* lovely and virtuous, Yogasiddha, who pervades