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INDEX TO NEW’SPECIES AND COMPILATIONS

A v after the name indicates that a variety has been de- scribed. The figure after the page number indicates the volume in which the description may be found.

Achillea arenicola 61 1 Eriogonum flavum v. 86 3 Agastache glaucifolia 32 1 glaberrimum 92 3 Agoseris leptocarpa 143 I halimoides 93 3 Allionia montanensis 143 1 helichrysoides 88 3 Alnus rubra 148 3 heracleoides v. 86 3 Anaphalis sierrae 147 1 Hitchcockii 84 3 Astragalus puniceus 140 I intricatum 88 3 Boisduvalia sparsiflora 42 1 Jamesii v. 87 3 sparsifolia 139 3 juncinellum 85 3 Cakile californica 10 3 leucocladum 86 3 Carduus laterifolius 141 1 longifolium v. 87 3 Cheiranthus ammophilus 52 1 Macdougalii 88 3 nevadensis 52 1 marginale 92 3 Chylisina venosa 140 3 myrianthum 88 3 Claytonia perfoliata 132 3 nevadense 85 3 Crepis exilis 142 1 niveum v. 89,90 3 Eriogonum Abertianum v. 83 3 ochroleucum vy. 90 3 alatum v. 84 3 ovalifolium v. 90,91 3 anemophilum v. 84 3 Piperi v. 92 3 angulosum v. 84 3 polycladon v. 92,93 3 annuum v. 84 3 praebens 93 3 arizonicum 83 3 racemosum v.93 3 aspalathoides 86 3 reniforme v. 93 3 caespitosum v. 85 3 restioides 96 3 cupreum 93 3 roseiflorum 91 3 Cusickii 90 3 rubidum 91 3 dichroanthum 90 3 salicornioides 85 3 elatum v. 85 3 sarothriforme 89 3 fasciculatum v. 59,86 3 spathulare 88 3

flavissimum 90 3 subalpinum v. 94 3

Eriogonum tenellum v. 94 3 Navarretia erecta 146 3 Thurberi v. 94 3 Oreocarya Eastwoodae 141

thymoides v. 95 3 Orthocarpus bicolor 59 1 umbellatum v. 95 3 exsertus I00 I Vimineum v. 96 3 tenuis 45 I

Gilia pallida 43 1 Pentstemon intonsus 44 1 violacea 56 1 Phlox Gooddingii 141 3

Gnaphalium albatum 141 1 Plantago Gooddingii 142 Heliotropium oculatum 58 1 Ptilocalais tenuifolia 142 Heuchera lithophila 105 1 Pyrusdiversifolia 150 3 Holodiscus saxicola 41 1 Ranunculus tenuipes 50 I Ipomoea callida 42 3 Ribes amarum 98 1

concinna 42 3 amictuim 94 I divergens 40 3 aiidum 97 I eximia 44 3 aureum 69 I Painteri 41 3 bracteosum 70 I Roseana 43 3 californicum 87 1 signata 46 3 cereum 7I I spirale 40 3 Congdoni ror 1 splendor-sylvae 43 3 cruentum 96 1 Urbinei 41 3 divaricatum 99 1 valida 40 3 glaucescens 82 I vulsa 45 3 glutinosum 75 1 Wilsoni 44 3 Greeneanum III I Lathyrus ecirrhosus 54 1 Hallii 53 3 Lepidium albiflorum 138 3 hesperium 97 I Linanthus Eastwoodae 125 1 Hittellianum 81 1 Luetkea sibbaldioides 149 3 hystrix 86 1 Lupinus deflexus 33 1 indecorum 78 1 Mertensia secundorum 68 3 lacustre 83. I Monardella coriacea 35 I lasianthum Ior I involucrata 34 1 laxiflorum 71 1 mollis 35 1 lentum 84 1 pallida 36 1 Lobbii 93 I

pinetorum 36 1 malvaceum 76 Ir

3

I

3

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Ribes' mariposanuin ‘go Marshallii 94 1 Menziésii 85 1 occidentale 87 1 oligacanthum 88 nevadense 79 I Parishii 134 1 quercetorum 103 sanguineum 74 I santa luciae 53 3 saxosum I00 I Scuphami 74 1 sericeum 92 I speciosuin 103 I Suksdorfii 11 3 variegatum 79 I velutinum 98 1 viburnifolium 83 Victoris 89 1 viridifolium 77 1 viscosissimum 72 Wilsonianum 95

I

I

I

I I

I

Rosa-californica 107 1 pinetorum 53 I ultramontana 107 I

Sagittaria arifolia v. 111 3

Salix sitchensis 148 3

Scutellaria sanhedrensis 31 1 viarum 32 I

Sidalcea hydrophila 107 1

Sisyrinchium maritimum 48 1

Sphaerostigma bistorta v. 60 3 Hallii 107 3

Stachys ramosa 116 I rivularis 33 I

Symphoricarpos fragrans 143 3

Trifolium Grantianum 136 1 orbiculatum 8 3 splendens 115 I trichocalyx 55 1

= te

Volume 3 January, 1907 Number 1

MUHLENBERGIA

A Monthly Journal of Botany

JARDEN I, Edited and Published by A. A. Heller CONTENTS Some Plants Erroneously or Questionably Attributed to Southern California: S. B. Parish I A new Clover: P. B. Kennedy and Laura F. McDermott 8 Some new Names: T. D. A. Cockerell 9 New Western Plants: A. A. Heller Io Editorial: 13

Los Gatos, California.

~~

& APS

FEB 6- 1907

/MUHLENBEBGIA ALA. HELLER, Editor

Los Garos, CALIFORNIA, JANUARY 30, 1907

SOME PLANTS ERRONEOUSLY OR QUESTIONABLY _ ATTRIBUTED TO SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA

By. (S. B: PARISH

In a previous paper in Zoe, February-April, 1901, the writer indicated certain plantae inguirendae, whose presence, or place, in the flora of southern California was based on either ascer- tained error, or unsatisfactory evidence. One of the plants there mentioned, Samducus Mexicana, has since turned up, Mr. Hall having collected it in the San Jacinto mountains; if, at least, we concede S. velutina to be identical with that species. But Mr. Hall’s specimens suggest that .S. velu¢ina would be disposed

of better as a variety of the common S. glauca.

_ The object of the present paper is to call attention to some other erroneous or questionable references. But first it is to be noted that the simple fact that a plant, purporting to have been collected by an early explorer, has not been rediscovered since,

is by no means sufficient evidence of an erroneous record. It is

true that our present acquaintance with the flora is far more intimate than that of the traveler, who passing hastily through

(1)

LIBRARY NEW YORK

BOTANICAL GARDEN.

2 Muhlenbergia, Volume 3

the country, or tarrying for but a limited period, collected what came in his way. Yet the failure to rediscover such a plant may be due to its extreme rarity, and the happy chance of any day may bring it again to light; or it may be an actual disap- pearance. Most of us can call to mind more than one instance of such apparent extinctions, either at last re-established, or yet unaccounted for. Such experience should stimulate those who have the opportunity for search to endeavor the rediscovery of these elusive or doubtful plants.

But an early record is to be regarded with suspicion when it sporadically locates in one region a plant which later investi- gations indicate as belonging regularly to a different horizon. Especially does this doubt attach when the plant its said to be common;” for one may occasionally pick up a straggler quite out of its proper habitat. And, indeed, it would be strange dd not errors sometimes occur, when one considers the ease with which locality labels, or numbers, might be misplaced in col- lections made during long journeys, perhaps of thousands of miles.

These early recorded plants that have failed of subsequent discovery must remain a doubtful element in our fora. A much more thorough acquaintance with our plant life must be acquired before they may be definitely dropped.

ANDROPOGON SCOPARIUS Michx. Fl. 1: 87.

This grass was reported from “southern California” by Scribner in Am. Grasses, 1: 19, on a specimen in the National Herbarium labeled “427 S. M. Tracy, 1887. Sabinda, Cal.” According to Mr. Tracy it should read ‘472. Salida, Col.” PANICUM CAPILLARIOIDES Vasey, Cont. U. S. Nat. Herb. 1s 54.

Reposted by Scribner, Am. Grasses, 2: 52, as extending from ‘southern California to Texas,” but all the material in the National Herbarium is from the latter State, nor can I learn of any collections in our litnits.

January 30, 1907 3

STIPA PRINGLEI Scribn. Cont. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 54.

“Dry slopes, Texas to Arizona and southern California,” according to Scribner, Am. Grasses, 2: 133. This also is un- represented in the National Herbarium by Californian speci- mens.

TRIODIA PULCHELLA H. B. K. Nov. Gen. 1: 155.

This strictly desert species is reported by Dr. Beal, Grasses N. A. 2: 468, as collected by Palmer at ‘Los Angeles, Cal,” an obvious error for Los Angeles bay in Lower California. It oc- curs, however, in the eastern part of the Colorado desert.

FESTUCA DASYCLADA Hack.; Beal, Grasses N. A. 2: 602.

This also has been reported from “southern California,” by Scribner, Am. Grasses, 2: 280, but the only specimen in the National Herbarium is Parry’s type from Utah. It may, how- ever, reach our eastern borders.

ALLIUM ParrRyI Wats. Proc. Am. Acad. 14: 231.

Parry’s type was collected at Bear Valley in the San Ber- nardino monntains, and not in the “(Coast Ranges,” as stated in the original description. It is abundant in that Sierran valley, and occurs sparingly elsewhere in the same neighborhood. Sev- eral of our alliums appear to be very local.

LILIUM WASHINGTONIANUM Kellogg, Proc. Cal. Acad. 2: 13.

Palmer is reported to have collected this lily in the Cuya- maca mountains by Watson in Proc. Am. Acad. 14: 255, and Bot. Cal. 2: 165. These mountains have been well explored by several botanists, but no subsequent collections have been made; nor does the ascertained range of the plant indicate its presence so far south. There can be little doubt of the erroneousness of this reference.

QUERCUS MOREHUS Kellogg, Proc. Cal. Acad. 2: 36.

This oak is reported as collected on Santa Catalina Island by Dill, Gard. & Forest, 5: 72. It is regarded by Greene, W.

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4 Muhlenbergia, Volume 3

Am. Oaks, 79, and Sargent, Sylva, 8: 119, as a hybrid between Q Wislizeni and Q. Kelloggit. As neither of the supposed par- ents are known from the island, or are likely to be found there, either the hybridity of this oak, or its presence on the island, must be an error.

THELYPODIUM LACINIATUM Endl. Gen. Pl. 876.

This has been reported from Santa Catalina Island, but without doubt by inadvertence for 7: laszophyllum Greene, a species known to occur on the island, and widely distributed on the adjacent mainland. ‘There is no specimen of 7. lacintatum from the island in the Brandegee herbarium.

LUPINUS ARIZONICUS Wats. Proc. Am. Acad, 12: 250.

Parry and Lemmon’s collection of this plant, given as “near San Bernardino,” in Bot. Cal. 2: 440, was made at or near Whitewater, in the Colorado desert. The species is strictly a desert one.

OXALIS CORNICULATA L. Sp. Pl. 435.

This has been reported several times from our region: Bot.

Cal. 1: 96, “most common south of Santa Barbara; Davidson, Pl. Los Ang. Co., “foothills from Santa Monica to Pasadena;” McClatchie, Fl. Pasad. 635, ‘frequent along streets.” Yet it is doubtful if it occurs otherwise than as an escape, as in Mc- Clatchie’s note. As such the variety atropurpurea Planche, has established itself in places in the streets of San Bernardino, notably affecting the crevices of pavements. The other refer- ences are toa plant common on the mesas near the coast and for some fifteen miles or more inland in the canyons of the coast -mountains. All that I have examined are referable to O. Wrighttt Gray, but quite possibly O. pxemzla Nutt. may be de-

tected in the coast mountains.

CONDALIA PARRYI Weberbauer, in Eng. & Prantl, Nat. Pfl. 3: Abt. 5. 404. Lizyphus Parryt Torr. Bot. Mex. Bound. 46.

he

January 30, 1907 5

Parry’s second station noted in Bot. Cal. 1: 100, as “east of San Bernardino,” should be Whitewater canyon, which makes into the San Bernardino mountains from the Colorado desert. It is exclusively a desert species.

VY MAMILLARIA ARIZONICA Engelm. in Brew. & Wats. Bot. Cal. 1: 244.

In characterizing this species Dr. Engelmann expressed the opinion that it probably would be found to extend into south- eastern California. Its authenticated range indicates this as highly probable, but as yet it has not been discovered within the State limits. Dr. Coulter in Cont. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 121, cites a specimen from California collected by Parish in 1880. This is in the Engelmann herbarium, and consists of three sep- atate areolae with their spines, and has a label, in Dr. Engel- mann’s handwriting: “Mamillaria Arizonica? deserti?”’ It cer- tainly came from the same plants on which Dr. Engelmann sub- sequently founded his 4. deserttz. Dr. Coulter very properly teduced both species to varieties of 14. radiosa Engelm.

V OPUNTIA MOJAVENSIS Engelm. & Bigel.; Engelm. Proc. Am. Acad. 3: 293.

This is founded, in two lines of description, on a specimen collected by Bigelow in 1853, ‘‘on the Mojave, west of the Colo- rado.” In Pac. R. R. Rep. 4: 40, this specimen is said to con- sist of “a few fragments, with a sterile fruit,” and plate 9, f 6-8, shows a “‘sterile and degenerate” frnit and two bunches of spines, neither fruit nor spines exhibiting any distinguishing charac- ters. The specimen, such as it is, is still preserved in the En- gelmann herbarium, at the Missouri Botanical Garden, accord- ing to Coulter, Cont. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 427. Dr. Engelmann himself, at a later period, appears to have regarded the species as of doubtful validity, for in Bot. Cal. 1: 248, he says he “merely indicated it, for the attention of future explorers.” In any case it could be identified only conjecturally, since the type had neither flower nor perfect fruit, and, in fact, consists of little

6 Muhlenbergia, Volume 3

more thar a few spine-clusters. Fifty years have elapsed with- out any further traces being discovered of this supposed species, yet it still holds a place in our books. It would seem that the time has come for dropping it. en we

Lomatium Vasey1 C. & R. Cont. U. S. Nat. Herb. 7: 216. . George R: Vasey’s type specimen is quoted from the ‘San Bernardino mountains,” in Bot. Gaz. 13: 145. It really came from the mesas near San Bernardino. ‘The species is a mesa plant, rarely arena the lower foothills, and never the moun tains. we

FRASERA PARRYI Torr. Bot. Mex. Bound. 156.

The type is said to have been collected “in the mountains east of San Diego, on the eastern slope.” This appears to bring it into the desert region, and to that extent is probably an error, as the plant belongs to the cismontane flora.

MIMULUS-INCONSPICUUS Gray, Pac. R. R. 4: 120..

The: type specimen, in the Gray herbarium, is tabotiik “Damp hillsides, Los Angeles, Bigelow, 1854.” It consists of a few poor scraps, and Dr: Jepson, who obligingly examined it at my request, thought it apparently identical with Dr. Gray’s more recently described var. datidens from the vicinity of San Diego. . Resident botanists have not yet succeeded in discover- ing either ‘Species or variety at Los Angeles, nor does the species appear to have been collected in’ recent times: in southern Cat. fornia. . ri

MaALACOTHRIX INCANA T. é. .G..FI, N. ~~ 2: 486. , Re iN

. Nuttall is reported to have collected; the typeof, nes species on: “an island in the bay of San Diego.” ‘The place‘intended js probably the Coronados Islands, beyond the Bay-.of. San: Diego, aid belonging to the Mexican State of Lower-California. - The plant has been: rediscovered in recent times (886) on the island of ery | os at

& ~~

Jatitiary 30) 1907” 7

CHRYSOPSIS VILLOSA SESSILIFLORA bai ae Fl 4£</ Patt: 2. 123

This me is said tig Dr. em to grow “near, the coast, from Mendocino Co. to San Diego and Arizona.” Dr. Jepson reports it as rare within the limits of his Flora, but “common southward.” I have never been able to see an authentic speci- men from southern California, and it is certainly not common. Plants listed under this name by Davidson, Pl.. Los Ang. Co. 13, and by McClatchie, Flora Pasad. 644, are monocephalous forms of C. fastigiata Greene, a species very different in pubescence, leaf and head from true C. sesszlzflora.

8 Muhlenbergia, Volume 3

A NEW CLOVER By P. B. KENNEDY AND LAURA F. MCDERMOTT

V Trifolium orbiculatum Plant 1 to 2dm. high, perennial, not involucrate, stems.

covered with short white pubescence, leaflets pubescent along the midrib or on one-half of the under side: root stout and long: stems erect: stipules at base longer and more linear than those above, all acute, adnate one-half to two-thirds their entire length, to 1cm. broad and 1 to 1.5cm. long, lobes irregularly triden- tate near apex, lanceolate and very slightly villous: leaflets .6 to 1.6cm. broad, and .8 to 2.5 cm. long, lower leaflets smaller, gen- erally broadest at the base, tapering toa cuspid apex; upper leaflets broadly oblong, rounding at the apex, some nearly or- bicular to deltoid; petioles of lower leaves 6 to 8 cm. long; up- per petioles 3 to 4cm. long: peduncles axillary, assurgent, 4 to 1ocm. long: heads terminal or binate, completely reflexed in age by the deflexion of the pedicels: lemon yellow flowers on long pedicels 12 to 15 mm. long: calyx dull green, 7 to 9mm. long, 10-nerved, alternating nerves inconspicuous, outer surface covered with short white pubescence, teeth 4 to 5 min. long, slightly longer than the tube, very inconspicuously cross veined, with an occasional bifid tooth: vexillum 6 mm. broad, 17 mm. long, apex rounding, sometimes slightly emargimate, base ab- tuptly tapering; blade of wings nearly 1 cm. long, reflexed, tip rounding, base auricled; blade of keel 3 mm. broad, 5 mm. long, broader than the wing, beak obtuse: ovary villous-pubescent, 2- ovuled; pod 1-seeded; seed obcerdate.

The type, which is deposited in the Nevada Agricultural Experiment Station herbarium, was collected at Thompson Falls, Montana, June 7, 1902, by J. W. Blankinship, no. 6.

Its nearest ally is 7: /atzfolsum (Heok.) Greene, from which it differs in the shape and texture of the leaves, the leaves being decidedly thick as compared with 7. /atifolium. The long re- flexed pedicels of the flowers and the much larger wing as com- pared with 7. /atifolizum give it distinct specific characters.

Nevada State University, Reno, Nevada.

January 30,1907 9

SOME NEW NAMES By T. D. A. CocKERELL

The following corrections of nomenclature are offered in view of the forthcoming new edition of the Catalog of North American plants:

,v Isoetes echinospora brittoni Tsoetes brauniz Durieu, Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 2: 101. 1864. Not /soetes braunzs Unger, Gen. et Sp. Plantarum Fossilium, 597. 1850.

Y Salix cascadensis Salix tenera Anders. DC. Prodr. 16: Part 2. 288. 1864. Not Salix tenera A. Braun, in Unger, Gen. et Sp. Plan- tarum Fossilium, 418. 1850.

~

When working on Hymenoxys, I had occasion to examine Syntrichopappus lemmoni Gray, and concluded that it ought to be separated from Syntrichopappus as a distinct genus, thus:

/ Microbahia gen. nov.

Close to Syntrichopappus, but pappus entirely absent: rays rose-purple without yellow: leaves entire. Microbahia lemmoni (Gray)

Actinolepis lemmoni Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. 16: 103. 188r.

Syntrichopappus lemmoni Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. 19: 20.

1883. Boulder, Colorado.

| Muhlenbergia, Volume. 3

NEW WESTERN PLANTS . By, A. A, HELLER

Vv Cakile Californica ,

. A.stout glabrous succulent much branched annual, 4 to eon high, the spread of the branches often exceeding the height: ive: thick and fleshy, oblong-ovate, the largest 8 cm. long, 3cm. wide, the apex blunt and rounded, the base tapering into the broad petiole, the margins sinuately toothed: sepals oblong, a little over 3mm. long, over 1 mm. wide, slightly nar- rowed above but not acute, thick, yellowish, convex on the out- side: petals pale purple, 6mm. long including the claw, blade about 4mm. long, 2imm. wide, the claw 2mm. long, shorter than the sepals, barely 1 mm. wide: filaments stout-filiform, the short ones 3mm. long, the long ones 41mm.; anthers bright ye- low, about 1mm. Jong, oblong, curved: style 4mm. long, thick, I mim. in diameter, with the stigmatic apex very slightly dives lobed: pods about 15 mm. long, without lateral projections at the nodes, the lower joint obovoid, about 5mm. long, 5mm. across the top, neither angled nor ribbed; upper joint broadly ovoid, 1 em. long, 3 mm. across, faintly two-ribbed below, strongly so at the flattened retuse apex.

‘he type, 1m my herbarium, is my no. 6856, collected on the beach at Monterey, California, near the railway station, Juze .29, 1903, the description made from living material. But the shrunken pods in the dried specimen present a very different ap- pearance. In these the lower joint is usually, but not always, 4-ribbed, the upper strongly 4-angled from base to apex, the apex pointed as well as flattened. In the dried state the pod more nearly agrees with the descriptions of C edentula, under which name our plant has been known. In his Flora Dr. Small describes C. edentula as having the upper joint 4-angled only near the base, and says the claw of the petal is longer than the blade, whereas in our plant the claw is only half the length of the blade.

1e me lee hod is cet 2cm. he ig ipa pay a mim. ayer nm, across; upper joint 12 or 13mm. long, including the i of 4mm., the body 71min. across, the beak not retuse, merely

truncate a narrowed at the apex which is rarely 2 mm. across.

“ht Ribes Suksdorfii

‘Shrub, probably 1 to 2 meters high, young branches meee der. and wand-like without bristles, bark grey: infrastipular spines brown, solitary, small, ascending, 5mm. long or: less: leaves thin, broadly ovate in outline, the blade 3cm. long and as wide, plainly 3 or indistinctly 5-lobed, the sinus between the F lobes narrow, margins irregularly toothed, the segments com- monly rounded and obtuse, ciliate, the base truncate or slightly cordate, both surfaces pubescent with short semizappressed hairs, especially the lower; petioles slender, a little shorter than the blades, more or less pubescent: peduncles proper slender, droop- ing, 15mm. or less in length, 3-flowered, glabrous: a rounded ciliate bract at the base of each pedicel, two nearly equal pedi- cels springing from the first bract, one of them forked about 5mm. above the base, where there is a second bract from which arises the third pedicel, also bearing a bract about 5mm. from the base: calyx greenish on the outside except the purple edges of the lobes, about 8mm. long commonly glabrous on the out- side except sometimes for a few hairs on the outside of the lobes, the tube narrowly funnelform, 3mm. long, 2mm. wide across the top, pubescent within, the finally reflexed lobes oblong, 5mm. long, 2mm. wide, blunt and rounded at apex, purplish or dull red on the inside: petals white or pinkish, 3 mm. long, Imm.

ee ee eee ee

Bi: Pag) i. oe

12 Muhlenbergia, Volume 3

wide at base, 2mm. wide across the top, the edges somewhat in- rolled: stamens exserted 2mm. from the unreflexed calyx, an- thers oblong, 1 mm. long: style commonly a little exceeding the stamens, 2-parted dewn almost to the petals, densely villous for nearly its entire length: ovary glabrous.

The type, in my herbarium, was collected somewhere in Washington in 1897 by Mr. W. N. Suksdorf, to whom I take pleasure in dedicating the species. It is part of a consignment of several species collected for me in quantity by Mr. Suksdorf and laid aside for the past ten years, the record which accom-< panied the plants apparently lost. The plant is no doubt from the eastern slope of the Cascades near the Columbia river in Klickitat county, as I think Mr. Suksdorf resided at White Sal- mon at that time.

It is related to R. divaricatum, but differs from that species in the absence of “bristle shaped prickles” on the young branches; in having only a single small straight ascending spine instead of ‘one or three large, strong, deflexed prickles under each bud;” the leaves are not “smooth and veiny;” the calyx is hardly “bell-shaped,” and the petals are narrower with a more claw-like base than those of 2X. divaricatum, which apparently is restricted to the wet country on the west side of the Cascade ‘mountains. ,

es :

January 30, 1907 13

EDITORIAL

After nearly seven years as a private enterprise, devoted almost exclusively to my own writings, I have decided to throw this journal open to the botanical public rather than start a new publication, for I am convinced that a journal such as I hope this one may become is badly needed.

A great many people are interested in plants—just plain ordinary plants that grow in the woods and fields—but are not interested in the learned papers which are worked out in the laboratories of our institutions of learning. It is our intention to exclude all such highly technical articles, and keep the pub- lication as it has been from the beginning, a journal devoted to systematic botany. And furthermore, we intend to deal only with flowering plants, and perhaps ferns, although the Fern Bulletin should properly be the medium for publication on the latter. There are journals devoted exclusively to cryptogams; and they should be able to take care of all that is written in their particular lines, the Bryologzst dealing with mosses, hepat- ics and lichens, and the Journal of Mycology with fungi.

There may be some who object to articles taken up by the descriptions of new species. The making of new species is a necessary evil, for many parts of our vast country are imperfectly explored, many plants are of local distribution, and each year brings out new species as new territory is looked into, old ground gone over more thoroughly, or the botanical “trash piles” turned over and critically examined. The true botanist and lover of plants derives much pleasure in searching out and knowing the peculiarities of the different species with which he comes im con- tact, and the more he4}does of this, especially in the field—for no true study of plants can be carried on without intimate field knowledge—the more he finds to segregate.

This brings us -to an important point. The man who goes out and communes with nature, be he professional or amateur, sees things, and is very liable to discover new facts about old

14 Muhlenbergia, Volume 3

plants. He may find them growing under unusual conditions, or out of their recorded range, or some character may be exhil- ited which he does not find in descriptions. The things he may discover are legion, and the discoveries should be recorded. We should be pleased to furnish the medium for imparting them to others.

Now something about MUHLENBERGIA, its origin and name. The writer, like many others, had articles to publish, and some- times had to do considerable engineering in order to have space granted for them, to say nothing of delays in printing. He therefore began to plan a magazine exclusively for and by him- self. For at least a year before the first number appeared in 1900, he had decided upon the name. ‘To western botanists especially the name of Muhlenburg is scarcely known, but he was one of the foremost botanists of the early part of the century just closed. His writings were less voluminous than those of some of his contemporaries, only two volumes having been pub- lished, one the “‘Catalogue” occasionally cited in works on east- ern botany, the other the “Descriptio uberior Graminum et Plantarum Calamarium,” published in 1817, the year after his death.

He was a Lutheran minister, for many years pastor of Trin- ity church in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, the city in which I had my home for about twenty years, where my first love for plants and things botanical was engendered, and what more fitting than that I should thus commemorate the name of the pioneer whose favorite haunts I no doubt visited, and gleaned many treasures from the places where he also found his, some of them species which bear his name as author.

Professor P. B. Kennedy, of the University of Nevada, at Reno, Nevada, is to be greatly congratulated upon his forth- coming monograph of the species of the genus 77zfolzum which occur in this country north of Mexico. It is to be not only a monograph in the botanical sense, but will also deal with the

ssibilities af the \ various species. Each pes ee y bya plate showing the entire plant as well as en- s of the floral parts made from camera lucida ¢ draw- is an undertaking which should have the hearty co-

i all botanists in every way possible. _ T; vifolium i is a

endl es a large proportion of rooted range. In a6. in Proc. Am. Acad. 11: 127-131, Watson gave a short synopsis of the genus, listing 39 species. Since that time no attempt has been made to treat the genus as a whole, but many species have been described i in scattered publications. Asa result, the deter- mination of species in the genus is difficult, and Professor Ken- nedy’s work will be of incalculable benefit. |

( The gocd people of our sister State of Nevada will be sur- prised to learn that they have been annexed to California. We here in California have had nothing to do with the matter, so they must look to Europe, where the act was consummated, for redress. In the Bulletin de la Societe Royale de Botanique de Belgique, 42: 183-200, July 10, 1906, just received, Michel Gandoger has a paper on the genus Zriogonum. He cites eighteen species and varieties from Nevada, and without excer- tion Nevada is credited with being a part of California. Tle following are some of the anomalies: ‘California, sierra Nevada ad Reno;” California, in sierra Nevada ad Wadsworth;” ‘“Cali- fornia. Stampede Ecklo Co, in sierra Nevada,” intended for “Stampede, Elko county, Nevada,” a point many miles to the eastward of the Sierra Nevada. Another novelty is “California, in regione Nevadensi ad Sierra Walley.” This looks as if Cali- fornia may have been dumped into Nevada. Whatever its in- tended meaning, the true interpretation is evidently “California, in the Sierra Nevada, in Sierra valley,” which is in Sierra

16 Muhlenbergia, Volume 3

county. It seems to us that when a botanist undertakes to de- scribe plants from a country with the geography of which he is totally unfamiliar, he should consult a reliable atlas, or at least give the data on the labels and nothing more.

If the work were a monograph with complete and accurate keys, the short descriptions might suffice, but there are no keys, and we fear that if the new species and varieties are to be rec- ognized at all, it is because in most cases numbered specimens from well-known collections are cited as the types. There are also some deliberately coined homonyms. On page 186 occurs E. alatum var. Macdougali, while £. Macdougalizt appears on page 191; £. “anemophyllum” Greene, var. Cusickiz, page 186, and £. Cusickiz, page 183; &. nevadense, page 188, £. ovalifol- tum var. nevadense, page 193, and £. umbellatum var. neva- dense, page 188; E. Cusickit var. californicum, page 198, and E vimineum vat. californicum, page 199. Should the plants which these homonyms represent prove worthy of names, there is an opportunity for some American botanist to assign other names to them, as well as fully describe them.

MUHLENBERCIA

A monthly journal of botany devoted to flowering plants and ferns. Price $1.00 a year, beginning with volume 3.

Application for entry as second class matter at the post office at Los Gatos, California, filed January 30, 1907.

Volume I. 1900-1906, consisting of 154 pages, contains 20 titles, with descriptions of many new species and interesting notes about old ones. Price $1.00.

Volume 2, 268 pages issued, taken up with an account of the Editor’s explorations in California during 1905 and 1906. The completed volume will contain 325 pages. Price $3.00.

A. A. Heller, Editor Box 58, Los Gatos, California.

Volume 3 February, 1907 Number 2

MUHLENBERGIA

A Monthly Journal of Botany

Edited and Published by A. A. Heller

Entered as second-class matter January 29, 1907, at the post office at Los Gatos, California, under the Act of Congress of March 3, 1879.

CONTENTS: Botanical Features around Reno: P. B. Kennedy 17 The Flora of Santa Clara County, California: A.A. Heller 33

Los Gatos, California.

MUHLENBERCIA

A monthly journal of botany devoted to flowering plants and ferns. Price $1.00 a year, beginning with volume 3.

Volume I. 1900-1906, consisting of 154 pages, contains 20 titles, with descriptions of many new species and interesting notes about old ones. This volume should be of special interest to western botanists. One number contains a key to the Cali- fornian species of Azbes, 43 in number, with reprints of the orig- inal descriptions. Another title is “The Western Veratrums.”. Price $1.00.

Volume 2, 268 pages issued, taken up with an account of the Editor’s explorations in California during 1905 and 1906. The completed volume will contain 325 pages. Price $3.00.

A. A. Heller, Editor Box 58, Los Gatos, California.

Volume 3 No. 2

MUHLENBERGIA LIBRAR' A. A. HELLER, Editor NEW YOR -_ BSTANEC2

Los GaTos, CALIFORNIA, FEBRUARY 28, 1907 GARDEN

BOTANICAL FEATURES AROUND RENO By P. BEVERIDGE KENNEDY

Reno is situated in the Truckee Meadows at the base of the foothills on the east side of the Sierra Nevada mountains, and lies in latitude 39 degrees 31 minutes N., longitude 119 degrees 48 minutes W. The surrounding country is rich from an agri- cultural standpoint, alfalfa being the chief product. Much of the land that was at one time in sagebrush and wild hay, is now, by means. of draining the low lands and irrigating the foothills, made to produce two or three crops of alfalfa annually. The valley extends by a narrow arm twelve miles long to Verdi, where the eastern Sierras rise abruptly with little or no foothill region, from 4500 to 7000 feet. It is at this point that the Truckee river, famous for its beauty, its fish, and, more recently, the Carson-Truckee reclamation project, enters the valley and wends its way to Reno. ‘The city is practically dependent upon the Truckee for its light, water, gas and power, as well as for all the water used for irrigation purposes. ‘The river is somewhat ~_ unique in that it flows out of one of the most picturesque lakes

Sin the world, Lake Tahoe, situated in a basin of the high Sier- ras at an elevation of 6225 feet. From this outlet it flows through the coniferous forests in a north, northeasterly, and then

(17)

MAR

18 ~~ Mublenbergia, Volume 3

again in a northerly direction until it reaches the Truckee Val- ley at the small lumbering town of Verdi. From there to Reno its banks are bordered with the delightful green of the alfalfa fields. Leaving Reno it passes aleng through the railroad town of Sparks, and through immense native hay meadows to the first range of mountains characteristic of Nevada, the Virginia mountains, at whose summit the famous Virginia City with its Comstock mine is snugly nestled. It breaks through these mountains at the Truckee Pass, so frequently spoken of by Wat- son in the Botany of the Fortieth Parallel. After leaving the mountains it enters a broad, hot sandy plain, where it turns northward and flows between high banks to Pyramid lake. It is on these sandy plains near the Big Bend of the Truckee that many of the new species described in the Botany of the Fortieth Parallel were collected. At a distance of about sixteen miles from the Big Bend the stream divides, ene large branch empty- ing into Pyramid lake, and a smaller one flowing eastward into Winnemucca lake. The combined area of these two lakes is about five hundred square miles, with an elevation of 3880 feet above the level of the sea. The water entering these lakes can escape only by evaporation. It is somewhat alkaline, but nev- ertheless abounds in very large native trout.

Now that we have given a general idea of the position of Reno to the surrounding country, let us return to the Truckee Valley and mention some of its botanical features. The valley, with its arm stretching out toward the west, is surrounded by mountains. The eastern Sierra Nevada mountains extend along the western side of the valley, and rise by a graduated series of sagebrush foothills to an elevation of about 7000 feet, terminat- ing at the extreme southwest in Mount Rose, with an elevation of 10800 feet, and looking down on the magnificent blue waters of Lake Tahoe. The Virginia mountains extend along the eastern side of the valley at an elevation of about 6000 feet, the highest peak, Mount Davidson, 7870 feet, looking down on Vir- ginia City on its eastern flank.

_ February 28, 1907 19

The Virginia mountains form a strong contrast to those of

_ the Sierras by their brown and desert-like appearance. From a

botanical standpoint they are exceedingly interesting, but have not yet been explored to any extent. The scarcity of springs and the difficulty of packing water make collecting somewhat

arduous,

_On the south the valley is closed in by an arm extending down from the Virginia mountains and another from the Sierra, which come together at Steamboat Springs, where a score or more of hot water springs boil up from the ground. This is also the type locality of several species mentioned in the Botany

-of the Fortieth Parallel. The valley on the north is also

bounded by two spurs, a low one from the Virginia mountains, and a higher one from the Sierras, the Peavine Hills, which rise to a height of 8270 feet, almost directly north of the city of Reno.

CLIMATE

As the climate of any given locality frequently has much to do with the presence or absence of many species, the follow- ing extracts from Bulletin 59, Nevada Agricultural Experiment Station, by S. B. Doten, will be of interest for comparison with other regions:

From the year 1888 up to the present time, the University has kept a record of the most important features of the local climate. A portion of this record is herein presented in a condensed form and published as a bulletin of the Experi- ment Station because of its importance to the farmers of this vicinity.

Average Temperature by Months and Years

In this irrigated section of the semi-arid west, the temperature of the air is of the utmost importance; there is always too little summer rain to count for anything; the heat of the air helps to determine the amount of water used in irrigation and the rate of plant growth. In the averages for January, for in- stance, we find in January 1890 an average monthly temperature below 20 de- grees; for January 1900, an average of nearly 4o degrees. The average for six- teen Januaries is midway between the two at about 30 degrees. The record for February is equally variable; that for July much more constant.

20 Muhlenbergia, Volume 3

Highest Temperature by Months and Years

In December, January. and February the reader will note temperatures above 60 degrees; in July and August he will find two records of 100 degrees, the highest ever recorded on the University Hill.

Lowest Temperature by Months and Years

Seventeen years’ record of lowest monthly and annual temperatures, shows the curious variability which is characteristic of our climate. A glance at the record of lowest temperatures for January, shows in 1888, in 1890 and in several other years, temperatures far below zero. In January 1896 and January tgoo the minimum remained throughout the month well above the zero mark. The Feb- ruary record of lowest temperatures is of equal interest. There is one record below zero in March, and in ten years out of seventeen we find winter tempera- tures below the zero mark.

April’s record of lowest temperatures is a record of severe frosts. The fig-

ures for May show frost for every year except 1894 and 1898. Precipitation

In 1902, for instance, we had a yearly total of less than five inches of water; in 1893 but little more; in 1904 and in 1891 more than ten inches fell; while in 1890 there fell rain and snow which would amount to over 15% inches of water on the level. The annual average for the entire seventeen years is 8.20 inches, and this probably comes close to the average annual precipitation for this re- gion.

Snowfall in Inches for Seventeen Years

The bottom line of totals gives but an inch of snow for the year 1goo, and over seven feet for 1890, with a yearly average of nearly two feet. This yearly average is somewhat misleading. Two feet of snow distributed through the winter and early spring in squalls and flurries will not usually mean much snow on the level at any one time.

The Truckee Valley may be regarded as having a more humid atmosphere and a larger precipitation by a few inches than the typical valleys of Nevada farther to the east. On this account it may be considered as intermediate between the val- leys of middle eastern California and those of central Nevada.

As it is the intention of the writer to refer briefly to the plants growing in the Arctic zone around Mount Rose, some in- formation concerning the climatic conditions found on the sum- mit may be of interest. The information here given is taken from an article written by Professor J. E. Church, Jr., in U. S. Weather Review, 34: No. 6, June, 1906, entitled “The Mount

ry 28, 1907

Observatory, together with some personal experience on veral trips taken during the spring and summer months. It appens that the most complete records of temperature taken the mountain top represent an unusually mild season, so the ollowing figures may be somewhat misleading, if we were to compare them with the present winter, which has been an ex- ceptionally cold one, the thermometer readings in the valley being usually below zero every